iSoul In the beginning is reality

Category Archives: Knowing

epistemology, science, kinds of knowledge, methodology

Time and light

This post continues on the subject of light conventions, see here.

In ordinary life today clocks are very common and portable. Time is everywhere and is everywhere the same (apart from adjustments for longitude, that is, time zones). It’s as if the signals from clocks arrived instantaneously everywhere, near or far. This is equivalent to a convention about the speed of light: the incoming speed is instantaneous. In order that the round-trip speed of light equal c, the outgoing speed of light must be equal to c/2. And time is 1D because it is a scalar quantity. This is the modern, Newtonian conception of time.

In another convention, the Sun is a global time keeper that casts its light and shadow everywhere, and is everywhere the same (apart from adjustments for longitude). It’s as if the sun sends out its light so that it reaches everywhere at the same time. In order that the round-trip speed of light equal c, any return reflection would be at the speed of c/2. And time is 3D because the position of the Sun is a 3D vector and the relative motion of the Sun is 3D, as observed in its diurnal and annual cycles. This is implicitly the ancient conception of time.

Einstein proposed a new convention: the speed of light is the same everywhere, independent of whether it is being sent or received. This is a middle position between the extremes of instantaneous and c/2 light speeds. However, the invariant interval was developed on 3D space +1D time dimensions, and so is 4D. In order to be completely neutral between the extremes, we would need to affirm 3+3 dimensions with an invariant interval of 6D.

The original creation story

The fact that many creation stories from around the world have been preserved (see here) shows that there is something behind them all. It shows us that something happened at the very dawn of time that human beings were aware of and considered important and tried to pass on.

Now imagine trying to preserve a story for thousands of years. How would you do it? If you wrote it on paper, the paper would disintegrate over time. If you inscribed it on stone, the stones could be buried over time. If you taught it to your children, how would you know if they passed it on correctly? All this and language changes so that the story might be misunderstood.

That is to say it’s not surprising that there are many variations of the creation story. It’s impossible now to combine them into one account because they are so different. For example, the role of water in the various stories makes some of them creation stories and some more like flood stories. How can we ever sort this out?

When you read of the creation and flood in Genesis, you can start to see how the other creation stories are all related to it. Both creation and flood are covered but in separate narratives. Instead of rivalries between purported gods, there is the orderly creation by the divine creator of a universe that we know is very ordered.

There are unique aspects to the Genesis account, too. This author notes several: Study Bible Shorts: The Uniqueness of the Genesis Creation Story – The Identity of God, No Rival Gods, Creation out of nothing, The Value of Humanity, and The Sabbath.

What about creation stories that are older than the Bible? Writing was not invented in the early days of humanity so stories were passed on orally. It’s of little significance which story was written down first. What counts is the reliability of the source, whether oral or written. The Bible has been zealously preserved for thousands of years. Other written accounts languished in caves and underground, forgotten and rejected.

To preserve a story for thousands of years you’ll need a group of people dedicated to preserve it intact. The Hebrew people have a well-deserved reputation for preserving their oral and written traditions. They (and later the Christians) have been fanatic about preserving the Bible over thousands of years. The Bible contains the original story.

Where does that leave ancient mythologies? They are a combination of corruptions of Genesis and legends about people such as Adam and Noah that sometimes made them into gods or superhuman beings. They indirectly reflect what actually happened, of which the key events are preserved in Genesis.

Law of levitation

This was derived for circular orbits here. In this post it is derived directly from Newtonian gravitation.

The law of gravitation states that the gravitational force is proportional to the product of the masses divided by the square of the semi-major axis, As, of the orbit:

F = G mM / As².

Because of Newton’s second law, the gravitational acceleration is

a = Gm / As².

The object is to transpose this into time-space by expressing it in terms of prestination and vass. The first step is to use Kepler’s third law, which is an estimate that states:

T² ∝ As³, or

T4/3As²,

where T is the sidereal period. This may be expressed in terms of the radial time, i.e., the corresponding time to traverse the semi-major axis, At = t, estimated as a proportion of the period:

At = tT,

so that

t4/3As².

This allows the gravitational acceleration to be expressed in terms of radial time:

amt–4/3.

The next step is to integrate, with a = dv/dt:

∫ dv = ∫ C1 mt–4/3 dt = –3 C1 mt–1/3 + C2 = v.

Then integrate again, with v = dr/dt:

r = ∫ dr = ∫ –3 C1 mt–1/3 + C2 dt = –(9/2) C1 mt2/3 + C2t + C3,

where the radial distance r = As. For the purposes of stating a law, set C2 = C3 = 0, and then solve for t:

t = –(2/9mC1)3/2 r3/2 = –C4 nr3/2,

where n is the vass. Then take the derivative:

dt/dr = –(3/2) C4 nr1/2 = u,

where u is the celerity. Take the derivative again to get:

du/dr = –(3/4) C4 n/r1/2 = b,

where b is the prestination of levitation, since the sign is the opposite of gravitation. This leads to

Γ = H nN/r1/2,

for vasses n and N, the levitational constant H, and the levitational gorce Γ.

Design and entropy

A carrier is the baseline transmission (such as a wave) that is modulated for a signal. Carriers have minimum entropy. Their opposite, noise, has maximum entropy. A signal conveys a message between a sender and a receiver. The entropy of signals is between that of the carrier and noise.

Carriers are the canvas for the artist. The canvas starts out blank. Then paint is added, which is the signal for the viewer. Noise would be like splotches of paint that somehow got put on the canvas. If the canvas were all noise, the signal would be completely covered with random bits of paint. The signal is designed to be between these extremes.

The closer a signal is to looking like the carrier, the lower the entropy and the simpler the message. The closer a signal is to looking like noise, the higher the entropy and the less the complexity of a message that can be transmitted. With the carrier alone or noise alone there is no message.

Design works the same way. A carrier alone or noise alone exhibit no design. A simple design would be similar to a carrier or to noise. A more complex design would be between the extremes of all carrier and all noise.

Entropy is a way to determine the presence of design. The more that entropy is in-between zero and the maximum, the more likely it is a result of design. A simple measure of design may be constructed from entropy as follows:

Define a design index, Ξ (xi) from the entropy, H, as

Ξ := (HHmin) / (HmaxHmin),

which ranges from zero if H = Hmin to one if H = Hmax. If the design index is one-half, then H is the mid entropy. The closer the value of Ξ is to one-half, the more likely the distribution is the result of design.

2015, updated

Knowledge and repetition

Consider the distinction between repeatable events from unrepeatable events. Repeatable events includes events that have repeated or may be repeated at will (as in a laboratory) or may possibly repeat in the future. Unrepeatable events are events that are very unlikely to repeat or are impossible to repeat. It is said that science only studies repeatable events, and it can be argued that history is the study (science) of unrepeatable events – not that it excludes repeatable events but that it focuses on unrepeatable events.

“Nature” could be defined as the realm of repeatable events. Then natural science would be the study of nature or repeatable events. Those events that are unrepeatable would be left to historians but ignored by natural scientists. But could such scientists rightly study the past while ignoring unrepeatable events? Ignorance of unrepeatable events would be a limitation and a defect. We would not expect historians to ignore repeatable events, so why expect scientists to ignore unrepeatable events?

We may well expect events that only involve inanimate nature are repeatable in some way. But are all events with living beings repeatable? The position of naturalism says, Yes. But at some point we need to say, No, at least some living beings have free will (or whatever you want to call it) so that their actions may be unrepeatable, and thus beyond the purview of a science of repeatable events.

Knowledge of repeatable and unrepeatable events may need different methodologies to address both kinds of events but it could not ignore either kind without bias. We need both the study of history, with its unrepeatable events, and the study of science, and its repeatable events, as independent disciplines. The synthesis of science and history would require a different discipline, perhaps called “scihistory” or “histence”, that would balance the input of each discipline with the other.

Posts on space and time alphabetically, updated

I previously listed posts on space and time alphabetically here. Below is an alphabetical listing that includes those posts and the ones since then (with hyperlinks):

1D space + 3D time again
1D space and 3D time
2D space + 2D time
3D time + 1D space, pace, and lenticity
3D time in ancient culture
6D as two times 4D
6D space-time collapses into 4D
A new geometry for space and time
Absolute vs relative space, time, and dimension
Actual and default speeds
Actual and potential time and space
Alphabetical glossary
An introduction to co-physics, part 1
An introduction to co-physics, part 2
Angles in space and time
Arrow of tense
Average spacetime conversion
Basis for the symmetry of space and time
Bibliography of 3D time and space-time symmetry
Center of vass
Centers of time measurement
Centripetal prestination
Change flows
Characteristic limits
Characteristic speeds
Circular orbits
Claims about time
Claims about time, updated
Clock race
Complete Lorentz group
Complete Lorentz transformation
Complete spatial and temporal Lorentz transformations
Consciousness of space and time
Conservation of celentum
Conventions of here and now
Conversion of space and time
Converting space and time
Coordinate lattices
Corresponding equations of motion
Cycles and orbits
Defining space and time
Derivation of Newton’s second law
Diachronic and synchronic physics
Different directions for different vectors
Dimensions of dimension
Dimensions of movement
Dimensions of space and time
Direction and dimension
Direction and units of magnitude
Direction in three-dimensional time, part 1
Direction in three-dimensional time, part 2
Direction in three-dimensional time, part 3
Directional units
Distance without time
Distance, duration and dimension
Distance, duration, and angles
Dual differential physics
Dual Galilei and Lorentz transformations
Duality of space and time
Duals for Galilean and Lorentz transformations
Dynamic time-space
Dynamics for 3D time
Equality of space and time
Equations of motion in space-time and time-space
Equations of motion in time-space
Event-structure metaphors
Fixed sizes and rates in space and time
Flow of independent variables
Flow of motion
Foundations of mechanics for time-space
Four perspectives on space and time
Four rates of motion
Four space and time dimensions
Galilean and co-Galilean transformations
Galilei doesn’t lead to Lorentz
Galilei for space and time
Galileo revised
Geometric and temporal unit systems
Geometric vectors in physics
Glossary of time-space terms
Gravitation and levitation theories
Gravity with dependent time
Homogeneity and isotropy
Homogeneity and isotropy of time
Independent and dependent time
Insights on the complete Lorentz transformation
Invariant interval check
Inverse terminology
Is space one-dimensional?
Is time three-dimensional?
Kinds of relativity
Limits of the Lorentz transformation
Lorentz and co-Lorentz transformations
Lorentz for space & time both relative?
Lorentz for space and time
Lorentz generalized
Lorentz interpreted
Lorentz transformation for 3D time
Lorentz transformation in any direction
Lorentz transformations and dimensions
Lorentz with 3D time
Lorentz without absolutes
Measurement
Measurement by motion
Measurement of space and time
Measurement of space and time
Measures of speed and velocity
Measuring mass
Measuring movement
Mechanics in multidimensional time
Minimum speeds
Modes and measures
Modes of travel
More equations of motion
Motion equations revised
Motion science basics
Movement and dimensions
Movement and measurement
Multidimensional time in physics
Multidimensional time in transportation
Multidimensionality of time
Necessary and possible dimensions
Newtonian laws of motion in time-space
No change in time per distance
No motion as zero speed or pace
Non-uniform motion
Numbers large and small
Observability of the rotation of the earth
Optimizing travel time routes
Outline of spacetime symmetry paper
Pace of light
Paceometer
Parallel equations of motion
Parametric time and space
Passenger kinematics
Perspectives on space and time
Phases of a 3D time theory
Physics for travelers
Places and events
Places in time
Problems in mechanics, part 1
Problems in mechanics, part 2
Proof of three time dimensions
Reality and relativity
Relating space and time
Relativity at any speed
Relativity of time at any speed
Representations of space and time
Simple harmonic motion
Simple motion in space and time
Six dimensional spacetime
Six dimensional space-time
Six dimensions of space-time
Space and time expanded
Space and time from the beginning
Space and time standards
Space, time and causality
Space, time, and arrows
Space, time, and spacetime
Speed and its inverse
Speeds and velocities
Subluminal and superluminal Lorentz transformations
Sun clocks
Superluminal Lorentz transformation again
Switching space and time
Symmetric laws of physics
Symmetries and relativities
Symmetry of space and time
“Synchronizing” space
Synchrony conventions
Temporal and spatial references
Terminology for space and time, part 1
Terminology for space and time, part 2
Terminology for space and time, part 3
Terminology for time-space
The flow of time and space
The physics of a trip
The speed of spacetime
Three arguments for 3D time
Three dimensional clock
Time and circular motion
Time and distance clocks
Time and linear motion
Time and memory
Time at Mach 1
Time conventions
Time defined anew
Time in spacetime
Time in the Bible
Time on space and space on time
Time scale maps
Total time
Transformations for one or two directions
Transformations for time and space
Transportation and physics
Travel in space and time
Travel time and temporal displacement
Two one-way standard speeds
Two ways to symmetry
Uniform motion
Variations on a clock
Velocity puzzle
Velocity with three-dimensional time
What is single-value time?
Why time is three dimensional
Work and energy, exertion and verve

Posts on space and time chronologically, updated

I previously listed posts on space and time chronologically here. This is a chronological list that includes the posts since then, starting with the most recent (with hyperlinks):

Outline of spacetime symmetry paper
Work and energy, exertion and verve
Circular orbits
Foundations of mechanics for time-space
Distance, duration, and angles
Alphabetical glossary
Center of vass
Equations of motion in space-time and time-space
Derivation of Newton’s second law
Clock race
Centripetal prestination
Motion equations revised
Gravitation and levitation theories
Simple harmonic motion
1D space + 3D time again
Measuring mass
Numbers large and small
Dynamic time-space
Four rates of motion
No motion as zero speed or pace
Simple motion in space and time
Observability of the rotation of the earth
Places in time
Conventions of here and now
Places and events
Four space and time dimensions
2D space + 2D time
Event-structure metaphors
Space and time standards
Space and time from the beginning
Dual differential physics
Time and linear motion
Time and circular motion
Gravity with dependent time
Sun clocks
Inverse terminology
Passenger kinematics
Physics for travelers
Non-uniform motion
Uniform motion
Two ways to symmetry
More equations of motion
Relating space and time
Parallel equations of motion
Corresponding equations of motion
Glossary of time-space terms
“Synchronizing” space
Characteristic limits
Minimum speeds
Modes and measures
Direction in three-dimensional time, part 3
Problems in mechanics, part 2
Measurement by motion
6D as two times 4D
Transformations for one or two directions
Travel time and temporal displacement
Galilei doesn’t lead to Lorentz
Transformations for time and space
Six dimensions of space-time
Time scale maps
A new geometry for space and time
Why time is three dimensional
Necessary and possible dimensions
Geometric and temporal unit systems
Time conventions
Direction in three-dimensional time, part 2
Dimensions of space and time
Terminology for time-space
Newtonian laws of motion in time-space
Phases of a 3D time theory
Paceometer
Problems in mechanics, part 1
Equations of motion in time-space
Conservation of prolentum
Dynamics for 3D time
Flow of independent variables
Switching space and time
Lorentz transformation for 3D time
Space and time expanded
Pace of light
Terminology for space and time, part 3
Synchrony conventions
Consciousness of space and time
Lorentz transformations and dimensions
Fixed sizes and rates in space and time
Lorentz and co-Lorentz transformations
Galilean and co-Galilean transformations
Relativity of time at any speed
Motion science basics
Flow of motion
3D time + 1D space, pace, and lenticity
Three dimensional clock
3D time in ancient culture
Relativity at any speed
1D space and 3D time
Characteristic speeds
6D space-time collapses into 4D
Direction in three-dimensional time, part 1
Terminology for space and time, part 2
Lorentz transformation in any direction
Superluminal Lorentz transformation again
The physics of a trip
Measuring movement
Total time
Dimensions of movement
Time on space and space on time
Dual Galilei and Lorentz transformations
Measurement of space and time
Invariant interval check
Six dimensional space-time
Two one-way standard speeds
Movement and dimensions
Insights on the complete Lorentz transformation
Subluminal and superluminal Lorentz transformations
Complete spatial and temporal Lorentz transformations
Limits of the Lorentz transformation
Lorentz for space & time both relative?
Absolute vs relative space, time, and dimension
Complete Lorentz group
Complete Lorentz transformation
Four perspectives on space and time
Change flows
Three arguments for 3D time
Variations on a clock
Conversion of space and time
Time and memory
Time in the Bible
Temporal and spatial references
Perspectives on space and time
Homogeneity and isotropy
Multidimensional time in physics
Multidimensional time in transportation
Angles in space and time
Basis for the symmetry of space and time
Lorentz without absolutes
Optimizing travel time routes
Different directions for different vectors
Claims about time, updated
Modes of travel
Lorentz for space and time
Galilei for space and time
The speed of spacetime
Representations of space and time
Travel in space and time
Proof of three time dimensions
Velocity with three-dimensional time
Dimensions of dimension
Space, time, and spacetime
Time and distance clocks
Actual and default speeds
Time at Mach 1
Centers of time measurement
Directional units
Cycles and orbits
Converting space and time
Actual and potential time and space
Defining space and time
Equality of space and time
Kinds of relativity
Symmetric laws of physics
Diachronic and synchronic physics
Measurement of space and time
Lorentz with 3D time
Time defined anew
Lorentz interpreted
Lorentz generalized
Transportation and physics
Average spacetime conversion
Galileo revised
Movement and measurement
Distance without time
Measurement
Velocity puzzle
Bibliography of 3D time and space-time symmetry
Symmetries and relativities
Distance, duration and dimension
Coordinate lattices
Independent and dependent time
Claims about time
Reality and relativity
What is single-value time?
Parametric time and space
Speed and its inverse
Symmetry of space and time
An introduction to co-physics, part 2
An introduction to co-physics, part 1
Terminology for space and time, part 1
Direction and units of magnitude
Six dimensional spacetime
Duals for Galilean and Lorentz transformations
Geometric vectors in physics
Speeds and velocities
Direction and dimension
No change in time per distance
The flow of time and space
Is time three-dimensional?
Is space one-dimensional?
Time in spacetime
Space, time and causality
Mechanics in multidimensional time
Measures of speed and velocity
Homogeneity and isotropy of time
Multidimensionality of time
Space, time, and arrows
Arrow of tense
Duality of space and time

Outline of spacetime symmetry paper

This is an outline of an article on “The Symmetry of Space and Time”. I’ll update it as needed and add links to the parts as they are written.

0.0 Abstract

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Examples of multi-dimensional time, ancient and modern
1.2 Reference to related work
1.3 Overview of the paper

2.0 Simple motion in 1+1 dimensions (space and time)

2.1 Distance and duration
2.2 Symmetry of space and time

3.0 Motion in 3+1 (space-time) is symmetric with motion in 1+3 dimensions (time-space)

3.1 Classical Kinematics
3.1.1 Angles and turns in 3D
3.1.2 Speed and pace, velocity and celerity
3.1.3 Equations of motion

3.2 Classical Dynamics
3.2.1 Mass and vass, momentum and celentum
3.2.2 Equations of motion
3.2.3 Newtonian gravitation in time-space

4.0 Motion in 3+3 dimensions (spacetime)

4.1 Mechanics in spacetime (3+3), reduction of 3D into 1D
4.2 Lorentz transformations in 3+3, invariant interval for 3+3

5.0 Conclusion

6.0 References

~

Claims:

  1. Physics (mechanics) begins with the study of local simple motion in 1+1 dimensions
  2. Physics (mechanics) may be done in either space-time (3+1) or time-space (1+3)
  3. Physics (mechanics) is within a spacetime (3+3) framework
  4. Time may be seen as having 3-dimensions just as well as space
  5. Time is duration with direction. That is, time is a vector variable similar to a space vector (a distance with a direction). Duration is measured by a standard rate of change
  6. The magnitude of time is that which is measured by a stopwatch, similar to length
  7. Replacing time with its negation produces a duration in the opposite direction. It does not reverse time or switch past and future
  8. Rates require a scalar in the denominator, which can be either space (distance) or time (duration)
  9. The spatial and temporal perspectives are complementary opposites. Time and space are symmetric with one another, and so may be conceptually interchanged
  10. Both time and space have continuous symmetries of homogeneity and isotropy
  11. Minkowski spacetime may be expanded to six dimensions, three for time and three for space. That is, the invariant distance is: (ds)² = (c dtx)² + (c dty)² + (c dtz)² – (drx)² – (dry)² – (drz
  12. Overall claim: space and time are symmetric

Work and energy, exertion and verve

Here we show the work and energy in the linear motion of a particle in space-time (see J.M. Knudsen and P.G. Hjorth’s Elements of Newtonian Mechanics, 1995, p.51). Consider a particle of mass m moving along the r axis so all quantities are scalars. Newton’s second law is then

mr/dt² = F, or

m dv/dt = F,

with mass m, force F, and velocity v. Multiply both sides by v = dr/dt:

m (dv/dt) v = F (dr/dt), or

mv dv = F dr := dW,

where W is called the work done by the force F over the segment dr. Define T as

T = mv²/2,

which is called the kinetic energy of the particle. Then

dT = dW.

That is, the change in the kinetic energy of the particle over the segment dr equals the work done by the force F.

If F = F(r) does not depend on time, then define the potential energy U = U(r) through

dU(r) := –dW = –F(r)dr.

That is, the change in the potential energy U(r) over the segment dr is equal to minus the work done by the external force F. Since

dT = –dU(r),

and upon integrating,

T + U(r) = E,

where the constant E is called the total mechanical energy of the system.


Here we show the exertion and verve in the linear motion of a particle in time-space. Consider a particle of vass n moving along the t axis so all quantities are scalars. Newton’s second law for time-space is then

nt/dr² = Γ, or

n du/dr = Γ,

with vass n, gorce Γ, and celerity u. Multiply both sides by u = dt/dr:

n (du/dr) uΓ (dt/dr), or

nu duΓ dt := dX,

where X is called the exertion done by the gorce Γ over the time segment dt. Define V as

V = nu²/2,

which is called the kinetic verve of the particle. Then

dV = dX.

That is, the change in the kinetic verve of the particle over the segment dt equals the exertion done by the gorce Γ.

If Γ = Γ(t) does not depend on position, then define the potential verve Y = Y(t) through

dY(t) := –dX = –Γ(t)dt.

That is, the change in the potential verve V(t) over the time segment dt is equal to minus the exertion done by the external gorce Γ. Since

dV = –dY(t),

and upon integrating,

V + Y(t) = Z,

where the constant Z is called the total mechanical verve of the system.

 

Science in the center

There are many different musical temperaments that have been used to tune musical instruments over the centuries. They all have their advantages and disadvantages. But there is one musical temperament that is optimally acceptable: the equal temperament method in which the frequency interval between every pair of adjacent notes has the same ratio. This produces a temperament that is a compromise between what is possible and what is agreeable to hear.

Science faces many situations such as the challenge of musical temperament. Conventions and methods need to be adopted and there are multiple options, each with their advantages and disadvantages. There are those who promote one method and those who promote another method, often the opposite method. Should science pick one and force everyone to conform? Or should science find a compromise of some sort?

There is a way in the middle that is a compromise between extremes and alternatives. It is a conscious attempt to avoid extremes and biases, and seek a solution that is the most acceptable to all. This is science in the center, a science that minimizes bias. Although it might be called “objective,” that obscures the fact that it is a conscious choice.

I previously wrote about the need for a convention on the one-way speed of light. Science of the center would avoid the bias toward one direction of light and choose a one-way speed that is in the middle between all the possible speed conventions. This is the Einstein convention, which is part of his synchronization method.

Science in the center includes not biasing classifications either toward “lumping” or “splitting.” Nor should explanations of behavior be biased toward “nature” or “nurture.” The particulars of each case should determine the outcome, not a preference for one side or the other. If there’s any default answer, it’s in the center between such extremes.

Occam’s razor is understood to prescribe qualitative parsimony but allow quantitative excess. This is as biased as its opposite would be: to prescribe quantitative parsimony but allow qualitative excess. Science in the center would avoid the bias that each of these has by prescribing a compromise: there should be a balance between the qualitative and the quantitative. Neither should be made more parsimonious than the other. All explanatory resources should be treated alike; none should be more abundant or parsimonious than any other. I’ve called this the New Occam’s Razor, and it is an example of science in the center.