The kinematics of 3D time (tempocosm) have been explored here over the past year. Now let’s look at the dynamics of 3D time. This will be done in 1D in order to allow generalizations to 3D space or 3D time. Start with momentum, the mass times velocity: *p* = *mv*. According to Newton’s second law, force is the time rate of change of momentum:

F = Δ*p*/Δ*t* = *m *Δ*v*/Δ*t* = *ma*,

with acceleration *a*. Multiplying by Δ*t* gives the impulse, J:

J = F Δ*t* = Δ*p* = *m *Δ*v**.*

The reciprocal of this equation leads to

1/J = 1/(F Δ*t*) = 1/Δ*p* = (1/*m*) (1/Δ*v*).

For 1D the 1/Δ*v* equals Δ*ℓ*, the change in celerity. Let *q* = ℓ/*m*, which could be called the *celentum* on analogy with the momentum, since larger values indicate slower motion. Then

1/Δ*p* = (1/*m*) (1/Δ*v*) = (1/*m*) Δℓ = Δ*q*.

Divide through by Δr to get

Δ*q*/Δ*r* = (1/*m*) Δℓ/Δ*r* = *b*/*m*

where *b* is the *modulation*. This is like force, with smaller values indicating greater dynamics – call it *surge*, symbolized by M:

M = *b*/*m*.

Since this form of Newton’s second law is a function of modulation instead of acceleration, it can be generalized to three time dimensions.