iSoul Time has three dimensions

Author Archives: Rag

Basic Gospel

Basic Gospel Message

Vic Scaravilli is a Catholic who put the following on his website here. I’m reposting it (with permission) and note that Evangelicals would agree that this is the gospel, with some nuances about baptism.

The Basic Gospel Message

By Vic Scaravilli

God loves each one of us. He loves me and He loves you with an unconditional love. You are precious in His eyes.

There is something that has kept us separated from God, something that has kept us from experiencing His love in our lives. That something is called sin. The result of sin is spiritual death. We have all sinned and never can be perfect.

Does that mean we can never know and experience God’s love? No, because God loved us so much He sent His only Son to die for each one of us. Jesus is the only bridge that takes us from our sin to the love of God. By His death and resurrection, Jesus opened the gates of heaven for everyone.

This is called salvation. It is the free gift of eternal life that is completely given to us by God’s grace. Salvation is the life in Jesus that begins now and will be for all eternity.

The free gift of salvation must be accepted in order for it to be our own. We must experience an internal conversion experience that changes our hearts. Once we accept Jesus into our hearts and allow Him to come into our lives, we begin to experience His love.

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Centrism

Centrism: A compilation of posts

The centrist

In my usage, centrism is distinguished from moderation as follows:

The moderate seeks the relative middle so if the winds blow in one direction, the moderate moves in that direction to a moderate degree.  In contrast the centrist stakes out a position in the long-term middle so if the winds blow in one direction, the centrist leans against the wind.  The centrist may seem contrarian in two directions at the same time depending on the issue but their focus is always on maintaining a place between the extremes.

Centrists are aware there are always trade-offs and oppositions:  liberty vs. safety, property vs. equality, big business vs. big government, present generations vs. future generations, economic stability vs. economic growth, etc.  Centrists seek a middle way between these extremes, a compromise that is aware of the tension between these extremes and expects adjustments in the future.

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Design and evolution

I last wrote about design here.

What is the essential element of a design? Dictionaries define design in terms of a plan but that concerns how a design is recorded or communicated rather than the design itself. I suggest that the essential element of a design is the necessity of a trade-off.

To define a trade-off first define incompatible qualities as qualities that contain contraries, for example, doing something accurately and speedily. An increase in accuracy causes a decrease in speed and an increase in speed causes a decrease in accuracy. Accuracy and speed are not contraries but accuracy contains slowness and speed contains inaccuracy, which makes accuracy and speed incompatible.

A trade-off is the situation calling for a selection of the degree of two incompatible or contrary qualities. A design is the selection of the degree or amount of two incompatible qualities or things. The design decision may be made by maximization of something desirable, such as profit, or minimization of something undesirable, such as cost. Hence optimization results in a design.

Evolutionary algorithms are solution-space trial and error search algorithms with stochastic optimization. They are based on concepts from evolutionary biology. Their result is an optimum solution within the given solution space. Because of the stochastic element of evolutionary algorithms, it may seem as if the computer made the optimization decision and so the solution was not designed.

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Generic units of measure

Customary units of measure such as the foot and the pound are suitable for everyday purposes such as measuring the dimensions of a person or a room. Metric (SI) units of measure such as the Kelvin and the kilogram are suitable for scientific purposes. Some metric units are suitable for everyday use, and they are so used in many countries.

However, there are some draw-backs to metric units for everyday purposes, for example: the SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K) which does not relate to the temperatures of everyday life (even the related degrees Celsius compresses surface air temperatures into a narrow band); the kilometre is rather short compared with a mile; and the kilogram is large compared with a pound (500 g is sometimes used).

The purpose of this post is to explore a generic system of units that would be suitable for both everyday and scientific usage.

Start with temperature. For scientific purposes, the absolute minimum temperature is an important limit, so it should be set to zero or some multiple of 1000. The triple point of water is meaningful for both scientific and everyday usage. These two points suggest a scale with the absolute minimum set to –1000 degrees, and the triple point of water set to 0 degrees. One generic degree equals 0.27315 K. So a value of 100 equals 27 ºC or 81 ºF.

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New fallacies

There are several online lists of fallacious arguments: Fallacies, Full alphabetic list of fallacies, Logical Fallacies Handlist, List of fallacies, List of Fallacious Arguments, and especially Master List of Logical Fallacies, A list of Latin names is here.

Aristotle categorized rhetorical strategies under ethos, logos, and pathos. Ethos is an appeal to credibility or authority. Logos is an appeal to reason or evidence. Pathos is an appeal to feeling or emotion. Fallacies are also categorized as formal or informal, with many informal fallacies.

There is perhaps nothing new under the sun when it comes to informal fallacies, but there are at least new variations on old fallacies or fallacies that have not been adequately described. Here are some notes about these new fallacies:

Assailment-by-entailment is the fallacy committed by person B when they attribute to person A a belief that person B thinks is entailed by something person A has said, especially if person A has denied the offending belief. Its object seems to be ostracism or reputation damage. See here.

Controlling the conversation is a no discussion fallacy in which one party rejects reasoned dialogue with a dissenting party. This is usually committed by a stronger party in order not to allow a weaker, dissenting party to be heard. Common in issues that relate to a stronger party’s status. For example, the status of science in modern society is partly based on agreement among scientists, so dissent among scientists is ignored or controlled by the dominant party. This includes scientific publication and conference presentation.

Motion and axes

This post continues from the previous post here.

All motion is axial. It is a principle of kinematics that every motion is composed of the simple motions of translation and rotation. These simple motions are either along an axis (translation) or around an axis (rotation).

Here is a table of these two simple motions:

Motion: Motion Along Motion Around
Moving: Straight Turning
Movement: Rectilinear Angular, Circular
Simple Motion: Translation Rotation
Measurement: Length Revolution
Manifold: Space Time

Length measurement is the ratio of the target length to a standard unit of length, such as one metre. Time measurement is the ratio of the target angle to a standard unit of angle, such as one revolution.

Space is a manifold of three dimensions of translation. Time is a manifold of three dimensions of rotation, which are three axes. These comprise six axes of motion, or six degrees of freedom.

The space and time exchange postulate means that the kinematic variables of translation and rotation are symmetric in the equations of motion. That is, a dual equation of motion is formed by exchanging space and time variables.

Motion measurements

As described in the previous post here, the three dimensions of motion are axes for traveling along (length) or revolving around (time).

A measure of motion may be either (1) dependent on the the target motion, or (2) independent of the target motion. A measure that is independent is either available prior to or separately from the target motion. For example, an independent measure may be determined by agreement, such as the length of a race, or it may measure another motion, such as the motion of a clock, which is then correlated with the target motion.

A standard clock measures time because it measures rotations around an axis as an angle. A length clock measures rotations about an axis as a length. With constant rates of rotation constant, there is a fixed ratio between the two kinds of clock.

A device that measures its own internal motion may be called an autometer. A clock is an example of an autometer. The internal motion of an autometer can be correlated with a target motion. For clocks this is called synchronization. For a length clock this is called symmacronization.

An odometer is a measurement device that depends on its target motion. The standard odometer measures length of travel. A time odometer, or trip-timer, measures time of travel. A trip-timer is a stopwatch that is on only while the target motion takes place. If there is a stop in the target motion, then the trip-timer also stops. So the trip-timer measures time of motion rather than elapsed time.

A device that measures a quantity of motion need not be attached to the moving body. The theory of relativity deals with the remote measurement of quantities of motion. A device that is attached to the moving body produces proper measures such as proper length or proper time.

In the beginning is reality

In the beginning is reality. That is, reality precedes us. We discover reality. We don’t invent reality. “Wonder is the only beginning of philosophy.” (Socrates in Plato’s Theaetetus 155d) “For it is owing to their wonder that men both now begin and at first began to philosophize.” (Aristotle, Met. 982b12).

We wonder about reality. That leads to questions, to queries. Wonder is not skepticism. Wonder does not doubt reality. Wonder affirms reality but wonders about it. What about this or that? The wonderful story of the Virgin Mary’s question to the angel of the annunciation illustrates this:

And Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I am a virgin?” (Luke 1:34)

Mary wondered rather than doubted. (cf. previous post here.) The angel was strange enough but this was stranger. Could further information be provided? Yes. We are encouraged to ask and seek: “And I tell you, ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you.” (Jesus in Luke 11:9)

We begin but reality has already begun. So we begin again. That is, we begin in the middle. We begin with questions. Socrates has many questions. He shows us how to keep asking. He knows nothing before his questions are answered. “The theologian always begins in the middle” (Stanley Hauerwas) and the philosopher does, too.

Motion coordinates

As a thought experiment, consider a rifle bullet, conceived of as an inertial projectile, fired at a target. Let the bullet itself be a source of measurement units: there is the length of the bullet and the rotation of the bullet. The extent of the motion of the bullet to the target could then in principle be measured as a number of bullet lengths and a number of rotations.

Length is the number of bullet lengths. Time is the number of bullet rotations. Thus length is essentially a linear measure and time is essentially a rotational measure. Length is generalized as the correspondence of the motion to a linear object, a rigid rod or ruler, which forms the basis of space. Time is generalized as the correspondence of the motion to a rotational object, a clock, which forms the basis of (abstract) time.

A rifle bullet provides a way to conceive of motion coordinates. Consider individually labeled rifle bullets continually fired from a common origin toward three orthogonal directions. The coordinates of a particular motion are then the labels on the coordinates that correspond to the motion. This means there are three pairs of coordinates: two for each bullet. These axes are the six degrees of freedom.

Motion conceived as a length function of time means that each for each rotational coordinate there corresponds its paired length coordinate. Motion conceived as a time function of length means that for each length coordinate there corresponds one paired rotation coordinate.

In conclusion, there are three dimensions of mobility. There are three dimensions for each measure of the extent of motion, which totals six dimensions. For ordinary purposes, the three dimensions of motion are sufficient, with space and time kept separate. But for science, which seeks a unified treatment, space and time should be united into six dimensions.

Dual Lorentz Transformation

Victor Yakovenko has a derivation (see here) of the Lorentz Transformation (LT) in which he uses “only the equivalence of all inertial reference frames and the symmetries of space and time.” Because of the use of (spatial) reference frames and velocity, this is not completely symmetric. As we have seen, there is a dual Lorentz Transformation. Let us follow Yakovenko’s derivation but with reference timeframes and legerity (matrix forms omitted).

1) Let us consider two inertial reference timeframes P and P´. The reference timeframe P´ moves relative to P with legerity u along the t1t axis. We know that the coordinates t2 and t3 perpendicular to the legerity are the same in both reference timeframes: t2 = t2´ and t3 = t3´. So, it is sufficient to consider only transformation of the coordinates x and t from the reference timeframe P to = fx(x; t) and t´ = ft(x; t) in the reference timeframe P´.

From translational symmetry of space and time, we conclude that the functions fx(x, t) and ft(x, t) must be linear functions. Indeed, the relative distances between two events in one reference timeframe must depend only on the relative distances in another timeframe:

 t´1t´2 = ft(x1x2, t1t2),     x´12 = fx(x1x2, t1t2).          (1)

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