The history and philosophy of naturalism

Biases of modern science

Mainstream modern science is biased… toward what it calls “primary qualities” (and against other qualities) toward greater and greater extension (and less intension or meaning) toward efficient and material causal factors (and against formal and final ones) toward repeatability (and against the unique) toward positive results (and against negative results) toward the current paradigm (and …

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Science in history

Scientific theories are in principle subject to underdetermination in that multiple theories could account for the data. In the natural sciences this possibility is strongly resisted. When Darwin proposed his theory in 1859, he could not show that a version of special creation would not account for the data. What he and Huxley did instead was …

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Nature and what?

A recent meta-analysis on the old question of nature vs. nurture (Meta-Analysis of Twin Correlations and Heritability) concluded that overall the variation of human traits and disease is 49% due to genetic factors and 51% due to environmental factors. There is a similar question about nature vs. culture in anthropology and education. Evolutionary theory is …

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The nature of creation

‘Nature’ is the world conceived without reference to God. A natural rock is a rock as if it exists on its own or as part of a world that exists on its own. It has no absolute origin. Its only ‘origin’ is from other rocks, other existing substances. It is all transformation. This presupposes a …

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