epistemology, science, kinds of knowledge, methodology

Laws of nature

While the early scientists expected God’s creation to be orderly and show God’s lawfulness, that is certainly not the case with conventional science today.  While we can say that’s because of the Enlightenment, there’s more to it than that. There’s something called the ontological inversion.  Basically, at first science is very empirical: what is real […]

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Creation and evolution paradigms

The evolution paradigm begins by doubting ancient peoples and ancient history.  They’re all seen as primitive peoples with worthless myths.  Compared to modern societies and technologies, they don’t have anything to offer us.  We should dismiss them, ignore their writings, and start from scratch.  It’s no wonder we come up with evolutionary theories that place modern society

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Definition of creation

“Creation ex nihilo” means creation from nothing, which signifies that creation means bringing into being out of non-existence.  Creation from nothing is beyond what humans can do no matter what degree of talent they possess. . But the usage of Hebrew (bara or asah) and English (create or make) include both creation from nothing and

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Testimony-based science

We’ve heard of evidence-based medicine and science in which test data are the standard of comparison. But what about testimony-based science? This means testimony is the standard of comparison, as is done in courts of law.  A prosecutor cannot just put objects or data in front of a jury.  There must be a witness who introduces

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The limits of secular science

“Secularity” is often distinguised as “what is secular” compared with “secularism” which means the promotion or the expansion of secularity.  The problem is not what is secular but an expansive meaning to what is secular. Historically, “secular” meant of an age or of this world (as opposed to the age or world to come) or civil or

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Explaining everything again

The key to explaining everything in a domain is to project the data onto an explanatory space that is intuitively clear.  So evolutionists project all life onto an axis defined by the extremes of law and chance.  If they are presented with evidence of design, they just analyze it onto law and chance and say

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Primary, secondary, and tertiary creation

People often fail to distinguish different types of creation.  Primary creation is creation from nothing.  It requires not only a supernatural ability but a transcendent being — one who is beyond creation.  Secondary creation is creation from something but that requires supernatural abilities such as super-strength or super-intelligence.  Tertiary creation is one that happens via

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Creation Chronicle Inferential Models

The confusion and disagreements about creation models shows the need to have accurate terminology. Accordingly, I suggest some standard terminology such as the following to distinguish types of Christian teaching on creation: The Creation Chronicles (CC) are the actions and events explicitly recorded in the Bible regarding the beginning and earliest years of the created

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Hemidemisemi science

A quarter note in music is classically known as a quaver. A sixteenth note is half of a quaver, which is called a semiquaver. For a thirty-second note the prefix “demi” is used instead of a second “semi” to make a demisemiquaver. Similarly, a sixty-fourth note is a hemidemisemiquaver. As we shall see, these prefixes

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Kinds of explanation

Different kinds of explanation may be distinguished by how they project phenomena onto ranges over pairs of opposites.  For example, an explanation may focus on natural laws but acknowledge measurement error or noise as well.  A combination of law and error/noise is one kind of explanation.  Other kinds of explanations combine created and fallen aspects, gradual and

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