As with a previous post here, this post looks at George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s Philosophy in the Flesh (1999). This time the focus is on what they call “folk theories” but I’m calling classical knowledge since these have become so ingrained in Western thought. Starting with chapter 16 they look principles that came out of ancient Greek philosophy. Though they don’t mention it, these were influenced by the other source of Western thought, Christianity.
The Intelligibility of the World: The world makes systematic sense, and we can gain knowledge of it.
General Kinds: Every particular thing is a kind of thing.
Every entity has an “essence” or “nature,” that is, a collection of properties that makes it the kind of thing it is and that is the causal source of its natural behavior.
Every kind of thing has an essence that makes it the kind of thing it is.
The way each thing naturally behaves is a consequence of its essence.
A substance is that which exists in itself and does not depend for its existence on any other thing.
Each substance has one and only one primary attribute that defines what its essence is.
Metaphysics: Kinds exist and are defined by essences.
The All-Inclusive Category: There is a category of all things that exist.
The Elements: Things in nature are made up of some combination of the basic elements: [which in ancient times were considered to be] Earth, Air, Fire, and Water.
What was considered the essence of being? There were several answers:
Thales: Water; Anaximander: Intermediate Material, Air; Heraclitus: Change; Pythagoras: Number
For Plato: Essences are Ideas (and Ideals)
For Aristotle: Ideas are Essences