iSoul Time has three dimensions

Motion and axes

This post continues from the previous post here.

All motion is axial. It is a principle of kinematics that every motion is composed of the simple motions of translation and rotation. These simple motions are either along an axis (translation) or around an axis (rotation).

Here is a table of these two simple motions:

Motion: Motion Along Motion Around
Moving: Straight Turning
Movement: Rectilinear Angular, Circular
Simple Motion: Translation Rotation
Measurement: Length Revolution
Manifold: Space Time

Length measurement is the ratio of the target length to a standard unit of length, such as one metre. Time measurement is the ratio of the target angle to a standard unit of angle, such as one revolution.

Space is a manifold of three dimensions of translation. Time is a manifold of three dimensions of rotation, which are three axes. These comprise six axes of motion, or six degrees of freedom.

The space and time exchange postulate means that the kinematic variables of translation and rotation are symmetric in the equations of motion. That is, a dual equation of motion is formed by exchanging space and time variables.

Motion measurements

As described in the previous post here, the three dimensions of motion are axes for traveling along (length) or revolving around (time).

A measure of motion may be either (1) dependent on the the target motion, or (2) independent of the target motion. A measure that is independent is either available prior to or separately from the target motion. For example, an independent measure may be determined by agreement, such as the length of a race, or it may measure another motion, such as the motion of a clock, which is then correlated with the target motion.

A standard clock measures time because it measures rotations around an axis as an angle. A length clock measures rotations about an axis as a length. With constant rates of rotation constant, there is a fixed ratio between the two kinds of clock.

A device that measures its own internal motion may be called an autometer. A clock is an example of an autometer. The internal motion of an autometer can be correlated with a target motion. For clocks this is called synchronization. For a length clock this is called symmacronization.

An odometer is a measurement device that depends on its target motion. The standard odometer measures length of travel. A time odometer, or trip-timer, measures time of travel. A trip-timer is a stopwatch that is on only while the target motion takes place. If there is a stop in the target motion, then the trip-timer also stops. So the trip-timer measures time of motion rather than elapsed time.

A device that measures a quantity of motion need not be attached to the moving body. The theory of relativity deals with the remote measurement of quantities of motion. A device that is attached to the moving body produces proper measures such as proper length or proper time.

In the beginning is reality

In the beginning is reality. That is, reality precedes us. We discover reality. We don’t invent reality. “Wonder is the only beginning of philosophy.” (Socrates in Plato’s Theaetetus 155d) “For it is owing to their wonder that men both now begin and at first began to philosophize.” (Aristotle, Met. 982b12).

We wonder about reality. That leads to questions, to queries. Wonder is not skepticism. Wonder does not doubt reality. Wonder affirms reality but wonders about it. What about this or that? The wonderful story of the Virgin Mary’s question to the angel of the annunciation illustrates this:

And Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I am a virgin?” (Luke 1:34)

Mary wondered rather than doubted. (cf. previous post here.) The angel was strange enough but this was stranger. Could further information be provided? Yes. We are encouraged to ask and seek: “And I tell you, ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you.” (Jesus in Luke 11:9)

We begin but reality has already begun. So we begin again. That is, we begin in the middle. We begin with questions. Socrates has many questions. He shows us how to keep asking. He knows nothing before his questions are answered. “The theologian always begins in the middle” (Stanley Hauerwas) and the philosopher does, too.

Motion coordinates

As a thought experiment, consider a rifle bullet, conceived of as an inertial projectile, fired at a target. Let the bullet itself be a source of measurement units: there is the length of the bullet and the rotation of the bullet. The extent of the motion of the bullet to the target could then in principle be measured as a number of bullet lengths and a number of rotations.

Length is the number of bullet lengths. Time is the number of bullet rotations. Thus length is essentially a linear measure and time is essentially a rotational measure. Length is generalized as the correspondence of the motion to a linear object, a rigid rod or ruler, which forms the basis of space. Time is generalized as the correspondence of the motion to a rotational object, a clock, which forms the basis of (abstract) time.

A rifle bullet provides a way to conceive of motion coordinates. Consider individually labeled rifle bullets continually fired from a common origin toward three orthogonal directions. The coordinates of a particular motion are then the labels on the coordinates that correspond to the motion. This means there are three pairs of coordinates: two for each bullet. These axes are the six degrees of freedom.

Motion conceived as a length function of time means that each for each rotational coordinate there corresponds its paired length coordinate. Motion conceived as a time function of length means that for each length coordinate there corresponds one paired rotation coordinate.

In conclusion, there are three dimensions of mobility. There are three dimensions for each measure of the extent of motion, which totals six dimensions. For ordinary purposes, the three dimensions of motion are sufficient, with space and time kept separate. But for science, which seeks a unified treatment, space and time should be united into six dimensions.

Dual Lorentz Transformation

Victor Yakovenko has a derivation (see here) of the Lorentz Transformation (LT) in which he uses “only the equivalence of all inertial reference frames and the symmetries of space and time.” Because of the use of (spatial) reference frames and velocity, this is not completely symmetric. As we have seen, there is a dual Lorentz Transformation. Let us follow Yakovenko’s derivation but with reference timeframes and legerity (matrix forms omitted).

1) Let us consider two inertial reference timeframes P and P´. The reference timeframe P´ moves relative to P with legerity u along the t1t axis. We know that the coordinates t2 and t3 perpendicular to the legerity are the same in both reference timeframes: t2 = t2´ and t3 = t3´. So, it is sufficient to consider only transformation of the coordinates x and t from the reference timeframe P to = fx(x; t) and t´ = ft(x; t) in the reference timeframe P´.

From translational symmetry of space and time, we conclude that the functions fx(x, t) and ft(x, t) must be linear functions. Indeed, the relative distances between two events in one reference timeframe must depend only on the relative distances in another timeframe:

 t´1t´2 = ft(x1x2, t1t2),     x´12 = fx(x1x2, t1t2).          (1)

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Evangelical attributes

I have written before about evangelicals (and others) here, here, here, and here.

An evangelical Christian is basically one for whom the Bible is the final authority for faith and life. This contrasts with Christians for whom the Bishop of Rome is the final authority, or Tradition. Some who claim to be Christians make religious feeling the final authority, such as those known as theological liberals, but surely that stretches the term Christian too far (see Christianity and Liberalism by Gresham Machen).

Evangelical Christians, or Evangelicals for short, receive the Bible as the Word of God, the final authority for faith and life. A corollary to this is that Evangelicals can only approach the text of the Bible with reverence and wonder, and not critically, that is with skepticism or doubt. Critical biblical scholarship is thus not for Evangelicals. Another corollary is that for Evangelicals all subjects must align with the text of the Bible. Hence Evangelicals approach the world with awe and wonder, as realists rather than anti-realists.

Evangelicals are not united on all matters. There are some significant divergences, notably: (1) baptism of infants and adults or only adults, (2) Eucharist/communion as the Body and Blood of Christ or only symbols, (3) some church hierarchy or only congregations, (4) continuationism or cessationism with regard to miracles and the gifts of the Spirit, and (5) emphasis on believers receiving Christ or deciding for Christ.

Unity, duality, trinity

Postulates of Motion

Postulate of three: There are three dimensions of the extent of motion.

Postulate of two: There are two measures of the extent of motion, length and duration.

Postulate of one: There is one exchange of space and time.

From the postulate of three comes a non-quantitative three-dimensional geometry of motion.

From the additional postulate of two comes two three-dimensional quantitative geometries of motion.

From the additional postulate of one comes one six-dimensional quantitative geometry of motion.

Being is a unity. Existence is a duality. Reality is a trinity.

There is a unity of being, a duality of existence, and a trinity of reality.

Existence is a distinction within universal being. Reality is an indistinction within universal existence.

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Demi-Creator Postulate

I introduced the Demi-Creator Postulate (DCP) here. This post explores the concept further.

Young-earth creationism (YEC) accepts what might be called the Biblical Creator Postulate (BCP). This postulate is an attempt to bring the Creator as described in the Bible into science. Not only does this bring theological debates into science but it also makes scientists attempt to determine what the Creator should be expected to do that could be observed, which makes scientists into theologians. This is science as practiced in the Middles Ages, when the Roman Catholic Church’s status in Europe ensured theological conformity. The Reformation and the Scientific Revolution have prevented such a situation since the 16th century.

In contrast, a demi-creator (DC) is a hypothetical being definable for the needs of science and observable only indirectly. Whether or not a demi-creator is a window on the Creator of the theologians is a metaphysical question, and so not a concern of science.

I would initially describe a demi-creator as a master designer and builder, who meets their given design criteria, whether these criteria are unknown to us or are specified in a separate postulate.  This demi-creator is like us in their intelligence and reasoning ability, only greater and with the ability to produce an extremely complex design that works. This enables us to make inferences about what to expect they have done given what has been observed.

The DCP enables science to consider the possibility of a creator without going outside of science. It posits more than the intelligent design (ID) proponents have been willing to admit but less than what is assumed by the YECs with their BCP.

Addendum (12/2018): The DCP could perhaps better be called the Designer and Builder Postulate (DBP). Intelligent design implicates a designer, and there must also be a builder to implement the design. This designer and builder is not necessarily a creator in the sense of creatio ex nihilo. What is necessary is that the design should be intelligible to us and that the making should be possible.

Length clock

A time clock is a device that measures a constant rate of internal motion. Time clocks are synchronized to a common event and rate of internal motion. A time clock is used by correlating its internal measure with other motions and events. The unit of measure for a time clock is normally a unit of time but even if it is a unit of length, the constant rate means the length correlates to a time.

A length clock, also called an odologe, is a device that measures a constant rate of external motion. Length clocks are symmacronized to a common event and rate of external motion. A length clock is used by correlating its external measure with other motions and events. The unit of measure for a length clock is normally a unit of length but even if it is a unit of time, the constant rate means the time correlates to a length.

In general, a device to measure length need not run at a fixed rate, or “run” at all, such as a ruler. An orientation toward length rather than time is comparable to the Myers-Briggs-Jung perceptive rather than judging personality type (e.g., see here), in which “time” is perceived less by a time clock and more by something like the tasks remaining or the distance remaining on a trip (as measured by landmarks).

Modern cultures run on a time clock but ancient cultures ran on a different sense of time. I hypothesize that their sense of time is what the length clock measures. They measure what “time” it is by their length from a reference site, for example, how close they are to Jerusalem for the holy days. It is the same with any trip: one can measure the progress by either the elapsed time or the length of distance remaining to the destination.

Natural cyclical movements such as the positions of migrating birds could be used for an informal length clock. A consistent length clock requires a repeatable motion at a fixed rate. There is a constant relationship with such a device and a time clock, so in a sense they are interchangeable.


I introduced the term geodemocracy in a previous post here. In this post I expand on the concept.

A country is comprised of two basic elements: people and land. Both of these must be present for a country to exist. The government in some way must represent both the people and the land. For example, the interests of the land may be represented by a landed gentry.

A geodemocracy is a form of government with two elements: (1) elected representation of the people, democracy, and (2) elected representation of the land, geocracy. A geocracy is elected representation by geographical region, regardless of the population, whereas democracy is elected representation based solely on population. To combine democracy and geocracy into one legislature requires a bicameral system, with one chamber elected by population group and the other elected by geographic region.

The United States government is a geodemocracy in two ways: (1) Congress is a bicameral legislature with democratic and geocratic chambers; and (2) the President is elected by the Electoral College, which is comprised of state delegates representing population and geography. The geocratic chamber is comprised of 100 representatives of the fifty states in the U.S. Senate. The democratic chamber is comprised of 435 representatives in the House of Representatives. The Electoral College is comprised of 535 members, and each state has the number of delegates equal to their number in Congress, which gives states with lower population a boost in the number of delegates.

A geodemocracy naturally tends to have two political parties: (1) one that is oriented toward the populace, that is, large city interests, and (2) one that is oriented toward the land, that is, rural and small city interests. In the U.S. these parties are called (1) the Democratic Party and (2) the Republican Party.

The two elements, people and land, are reflected in patriotic hymns. For example, the hymn America the Beautiful speaks of the land: the mountains, the plains, and the extent “from sea to shining sea.” It also speaks of the people: brotherhood, liberty, and “the alabaster cities.”