For the first post in this series see *here*.

Space with time (3+1)

Space is that which is measured by length; time is that which is measured by duration. There are three dimensions of length and one dimension (or parameter) of duration. Direction in space is measured by an angle, which is part of a circle.

Spatial rates are dependent on another variable, usually interval of time (distime).

Time is that which is measured by duration. Events are ordered by time. Time as an independent variable decreases from the past to the present and increases from the present to the future.

Temporal rates are dependent on another variable, usually the interval of space (stance).

Dual: time with space (1+3)

The dual of space with time is time with space. The dual of space is time and the dual of time is space. Space corresponds to time and time corresponds to space.

Time is that which is measured by duration; space is that which is measured by length. There are three dimensions of duration and one dimension (or parameter) of length. Direction in time is measured by a turn, which is part of a rotation.

Temporal rates are dependent on another variable, usually interval of space (stance).

Space is that which is measured by length. Events are ordered by length (stance). Space as an independent variable decreases from a past there to here and increases from here to a future there.

Spatial rates are dependent on another variable, usually the interval of time (distime).

Together

Converting between space and time begins with interchanging (exchanging) spatial and temporal quantities. Time measured by duration is replaced with space converted to a single length by taking the distance from a reference point. Three dimensions of space measured by length are replaced by three dimensions of time measured by duration from a reference timepoint.

In order to consider rates together rates in time with space must be converted by a harmonic function to rates in space with time. In order to consider rates together rates in space with time must be converted by a harmonic function to rates in time with space.