# Knowing

epistemology, science, kinds of knowledge, methodology

## Michelson Morley Experiment Re-examined

The Michelson-Morley experiment, compared the longitudinal and transverse cases of reflected light, expecting to detect an ether wind (Figure 1). Figure 1. Michelson-Morley apparatus They explain: “Let sa … be a ray of light which is partly reflected in ab, and partly transmitted in ac, being returned by the mirrors b and c, along ba […]

## Ancient Greek means

The ancient Greeks defined ten means in terms of the following proportions (see here): Let a > m > b > 0. Then m represents (1) the arithmetic mean of a and b if (2) the geometric mean of a and b if (3) the harmonic mean of a and b if (4) the contraharmonic

## Introduction to logic

This post follows others about logic, such as here. Purpose The purpose of logic is to ensure that one’s discourse makes sense. The most important part of making sense is avoiding contradictions, which would both affirm and deny a proposition. Some propositions may be affirmed in part and denied in part; that is different. The

## Rates of motion in time and distance domains

The rates of motion for translational (linear) and rotational (angular) motion in the time domain and the distance domain are as follows: Time Domain Variable Translational Motion Rotational Motion Location x θ Velocity v = dx/dt ω = dθ/dt Acceleration a = dv/dt α = dω/dt Distance Domain Variable Translational Motion Rotational Motion Chronation z

## N-ary distinctions

The ground of each distinction is an indistinct mass or state or condition, a kind of whole without parts or at least without parts that have been discerned. Every instance of the whole is at first, an instance of one mass or state or condition. A unary distinction is a discernment of something out of

## Algebra and calculus of ratios

Ratio Algebra Let us define an algebra of ratios. A ratio consists of two numeric expressions separated by a colon, and for clarity enclosed in parentheses, i.e., (a : b) with a, b ∈ ℝ. The expression on the left is the antecedent, and the expression on the right is the consequent. (0 : 0) is

## Complete Galilei Group

The following is based on Lévy-LeBlond’s Galilei Group and Galilean Invariance, §2 (Nuovo Cimento, Jan. 1973). Let Ω be the complete Newtonian space, the points (events) of which we label by their coordinates in some complete Galilean frame, using the notation y = (x(t), z(s)).     (1) The complete proper Galilei group G (or Galilei

## Gamma factor between means

Consider the mean between two quantities: The arithmetic mean is The harmonic mean is where which equals the gamma factor of the Lorentz transformation. The geometric mean is Then the factor γ2 transforms a harmonic mean into an arithmetic mean: The inverse γ factor transforms an arithmetic mean into a geometric mean: so that The

## Derivation of the wave equation

The following is based on the “Derivation of the Wave Equation in Time” here with Faraday’s and Ampere-Maxwell’s laws completed for three dimensions of duration. With electric field e, electric displacement d, magnetic induction b, magnetic intensity h, current density j, length coordinates x, and duration coordinates z, these are as follows: and where the

## Motion from geometry to algebra

Geometrically, motion takes place in a three-dimensional Euclidean space with a one-dimensional parameter. Let σ be a position vector in the space and π be a value of the parameter. Then σ(π) represents the positions of a particle in motion with the parameter π and the position σ. There are two measures of the extent