Science particularly as related to creation and the creation-evolution controversy

N-ary distinctions

The ground of each distinction is an indistinct mass or state or condition, a kind of whole without parts or at least without parts that have been discerned. Every instance of the whole is at first, an instance of one mass or state or condition. A unary distinction is a discernment of something out of […]

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Algebra and calculus of ratios

Ratio Algebra Let us define an algebra of ratios. A ratio consists of two numeric expressions separated by a colon, and for clarity enclosed in parentheses, i.e., (a : b) with a, b ∈ ℝ. The expression on the left is the antecedent, and the expression on the right is the consequent. (0 : 0) is

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Science and naturalism

The purpose of science is to discover laws, which are then applied to predict and explain phenomena, develop technology, and make things. This occurs through a cycle of material induction and formal deduction. Induction consists of making observations, defining terms, and proposing postulates. Deduction consists of taking the terms and definitions from induction, possibly with

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Squares of opposition

The traditional Aristotelian square of opposition is like that of first-order logic apart from existential import: Or in words: Outer negation is the contradictory, i.e., affirm/deny, and inner negation is the contrary, i.e., all/none. For quantifiers (or other operators) there is a duality square: Outer negation is negation of the whole quantifier; inner negation is

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Two kinds of induction

Historically, there are two kinds of induction, called here the postulational and the hypothetical. Postulational induction (cf. material induction) is the induction practiced in ancient and early modern times in which empirical induction leads to essential definitions and universal postulates for subsequent deduction. This is the Socratic view of induction: “in modern philosopher’s technical terms—the

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Worlds of motion

Kinecosm is the world of motion, which is the subject of kinematics. Since the extent of motion has two measures: length and duration, the kinecosm has two subworlds: Length space is the three-dimensional world of length, which is commonly called space. Duration space is the three-dimensional world of duration. Chorocosm is length space with time.

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Lagrange’s equations in time-space

This post is based on the article Deriving Lagrange’s equations using elementary calculus by Josef Hanc, Edwin F. Taylow, and Slavomir Tuleja (AJP 72(4) 2004), which provides a derivation of Lagrange’s equations from the principle of least action using elementary calculus. A tempicle moves along the t axis with potential lethargy W(t), which is location-independent.

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Ratios and quotients

The traditional ratio, x : y, represents both x / y and y / x. In order to represent a ratio as quotients, both forms are required. Let us define a ratio as an ordered pair of quotients: For vectors this means One can either exclude zero or include infinity as follows; A rate of

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Metaphysics of natural science

This is the latest post in a series on science and metaphysics; the previous post is here. The one and only metaphysical postulate of natural science is this: Everything has a fixed nature. This postulate allows the study of classes or kinds or types of things with a common fixed nature. For example, it allows

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