iSoul In the beginning is reality.

Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about base-duration (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding length-time (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

Note that the term time has multiple meanings: duration, distime, dischronment, and timeline. The term space also has multiple meanings: length, distance, displacement, and baseline.

The terms below are presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

3D space (or 3D length manifold) is a Euclidean manifold with three length dimensions.

3D time (or 3D duration manifold) is a Euclidean manifold with three duration dimensions.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of its dischronment magnitude; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; no acceleration is unaccelerated; units of m/s²; symbol a; timepoint acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|.

alacrity is the ratio of repose per unit of stanceline: Z ≡ dV/ds = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

angle (θ or ϕ) is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a point.

angle direction is the angle from a reference ray.

angular fulmentum for a transicle is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × q, the cross product of the particle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, q = nu.

angular momentum for a point particle is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with location and chronation.

carrier (wave) is a body with vass that fills an occasion; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; R = (1/M) Σi ri mi.

center of vass (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of vass; T = (1/N) Σi ti ni.

chronation (or duration position) of an instant in 3D time is the vector to it from the time origin; symbol t.

circular motion: stance circle S = wavelength λ = v/f; circular arc s; stance radius R; length angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

clock device displays the present timepoint.

cyclic motion: duration period T = wave duration μ = u/h; rotation duration t; duration radius Q; duration angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = u/μ; angular lenticity u = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then u = h; if Q = 1, then u = ψ = 2πh = θ/s.

dischronment is a vector of distime and turn direction between two instants.

displacement is a vector of distance and angle direction between two points.

distance is (1) the length of uniform motion between two points at a reference speed; (2) the absolute difference between two stance values; or (3) the magnitude of a displacement vector; symbol s.

distime is (1) the duration of uniform motion between two instants at a reference pace; (2) the absolute difference between two time values; or (3) the magnitude of a dischronment vector; symbol t.

duration is the extent of a motion as measured by a stopwatch or clock, with a sign indicating the direction of measurement.

duration mean pace is the harmonic mean of paces with a common duration unit.

duration mean speed is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common duration unit.

duration scale is a ratio of map distime interval vs. actual distime interval.

elaphra is the release exerted on a body by levity.

energy is the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E.

event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation; or the point and instant of an occurrence.

event order is a stanceline or timeline.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement; Latin for easy.

facilial system has bodies at rest or moving with constant lenticity.

force is the time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s‒2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as vass or release and its distime from or to an instant.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of vass; J ≡ Σi ti2 ni.

fulmentum (ful∙men′∙tum) is the vass times the lenticity; the space rate of change of the vass-distime fulment; Latin, prop, support; units of kg‒1 s m‒1; symbol q = nu.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

impellence is a release G applied over a length ds or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol K R·ds = dq.

impulse is a force F applied over a duration dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial system has bodies at rest or moving with constant velocity.

instant is an event with no duration.

instantaneous events occur in an instant.

isochron line shows equidistimed events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the set of ordered pairs of relative length and duration position, called location and chronation.

kinetic energy KE = ½ mv².

kinetic lethargy KR = ½ nu².

length is the extent of a motion as measured by a rigid rod or a measuring wheel, with a sign indicating the direction of measurement.

length mean pace is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common length unit.

length mean speed is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common length unit.

length scale is a ratio of map distance vs. actual distance.

lenticity (len·tis′·i·ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its dischronment to the change in stanceline; symbol u; mean lenticity is Δts; puncstanceous (or stancepoint) lenticity is dt/ds = dt/|ds|; from Latin lentus, slow, sluggish.

lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol Q = 1/E.

levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of vass.

location (or length position) of a point in 3D space is the vector to it from the space origin; symbol s.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of vass; units of kg; symbol m.

matter (particle) is a body with mass that occupies a place; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI unit of length, distance, or stance.

metreloge device displays the present stancepoint.

metric of motion is the extent of motion as measured by length or duration.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its distance from or to a point or axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2 mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-distance moment; Latin, movement; units in kg m s‒1; symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its location and chronation.

pace of an event is its space rate of motion, that is, the ratio of its duration to the stance unit without regard to direction; symbol u; from racing; units of s/m, min/km, etc.; puncstanceous (or stancepoint) pace is dt/ds, which equals the magnitude of puncstanceous lenticity.

period (of time) is a timeline interval.

point is an event with no length.

power is the ratio of work per unit of duration: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

puncstanceous events occur in a point.

reference frame is a method of describing the location, velocity, and acceleration of a body.

reference timeframe is a method of describing the chronation, lenticity, and retardation of a body.

release is the space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg‒1 s m‒2; symbol R ≡ dq/ds, e,g., nb.

repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: XR·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Z ds; units O·s.

retardation is the change in the dischronment per unit of its displacement magnitude; verb is retard with negative de-retard (or expedite); no retardation is unretarded; units s/m²; symbol b; stancepoint retardation is du/ds = du/|ds|.

second is the SI unit of duration, distime.

simulstanceity is the relation between events with the same stancepoint; adj. simulstanceous.

simultaneity is the relation between events with the same timepoint; adjective simultaneous.

space origin is a reference point.

spaces (or spans) are stanceline intervals.

speed of a body is its time rate of motion, that is, the ratio of its length to the duration unit without regard to direction; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.; instantaneous (or timepoint) speed is ds/dt, which equals the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.

stance is the magnitude of a location vector; symbol s; adj. stancial.

stanceline is a line of stancepoints.

stancepoint is a stance value.

strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum of a body, σ = Iβ; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronous, has the same timepoints; verb synchronize, make synchronous.

synstanceous, has the same stancepoints; vb. synstancize, make synstaneous.

time is the magnitude of a chronation vector; symbol t.

time origin is a reference instant.

timeline is a line of timepoints.

timepoint (or instant) is a time value.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, τ = Iα; units: N·m.

travel distance (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc duration) is the duration along a curve.

turn angle (χ or ψ) is a proportion of a uniform revolution between two rays intersecting in an instant.

turn direction is the turn angle from a reference ray.

vass (or spread) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from vast; units of kg‒1; symbol n.

velocity (vel∙o′∙ci∙ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its displacement to the change in time; symbol v; mean velocity is Δrt; instantaneous (or timepoint) velocity is ds/dt = ds/|dt|; from Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement s: WF· s; for a constant force: W = F ds = P dt; units: J = N·m.