iSoul Time has three dimensions

Time Space Glossary

In order to speak with precision about time-space (1D space + 3D time) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space-time (3D space + 1 D time) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new time-space terms are placed parallel to their corresponding space-time terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics & Transportation and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

Note that the term time has multiple meanings: duration, distime, distimement, 3D time, scalar time. These correspond to the meanings of space: length, distance, displacement, 3D space.

The terms below are presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of its distimement magnitude. Verb is accelerate with negative decelerate. Faster acceleration is in the direction of motion. Units of m/s². Symbol a.

alacrity is the space (length) rate of surge: Q = dV/ds = Γ·u. Units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

angle is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a point.

angular direction is the angle from a reference ray.

angular fulmentum for a transicle is the cross product of the particle’s time position vector, w (relative to an origin), and its fulmentum vector, q = nu.

angular momentum for a point particle is the cross product of the particle’s position vector, r (relative to an origin), and its momentum vector, p = mv.

arcloge (arc′∙loje) is a cyclic or wheeled length measuring device that continues indefinitely, has a standard starting point, and displays the local stance.

body is an entity composed of contiguous points and instants.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the mean point in space of the particles of a body, weighted by their masses.

center of vass (or elaphrocenter) is the mean instant in time of the transicles of a body, weighted by their vasses.

chronological is ordered by a time line. Greek chron, time.

chronology is a series of events ordered by a time line.

clock (or horologe) is a stopwatch or other duration measuring device that runs indefinitely, has a standard starting instant, and displays the present time.

displacement is the vector of distance and angular direction between two points.

distance is the length of linear motion between two points.

distime is the duration of straight motion between two instants.

distimement is the vector of distime and turn direction between two instants. From dis+time+ment.

dual Lorentz transformation is the set of equations that relate space and time coordinates of reference timeframes moving at a constant legerity relative to each other.

duration is the extent of a motion as measured by a stopwatch or clock.

effectivity is the capacity for surge. Units, 1/J = O·s. Symbol X = 1/E.

elaphra is the rush exerted on a body by levity.

energy is the capacity for doing work. Units, J = N·m = W·s. Symbol E.

event is a physical occurrence.

expedience is the change in the distimement per unit of its displacement magnitude. Verb is expedite with negative de-expedite. Faster expedience is in the opposite direction of motion. Units of s/m². Symbol b.

extent is the range of values.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement. Latin for easy.

force is the time (duration) rate of change of momentum. Units in newtons, N = kg m s‑2. Symbol F = ma = Δpt.

form is any substance with vass that occupies a period.

freeflow timeframe of a body is the reference timeframe in which the body is moving at zero pace, which is the stance conversion speed.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as rush times its distime from or toward an instant or line in time

fulmentum (ful∙men′∙tum) is the legerity weighted by (times) the vass. Latin, prop, support. Units of kg‑1 s m‑1. Symbol q = nu.

Galilean space-time is a context in which the measurement of time is the same for all observers (i.e., absolute time), and the measurement of space is relative to the motion of each observer. The Galilean space-time transformation of space is: = r – vt.

Galilean time-space is a context in which the measurement of space is the same for all observers (i.e., absolute stance), and the measurement of time is relative to the motion of each observer. The Galilean time-space transformation of time is: = t – ur.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the body with greater mass.

impetus is a rush Γ applied over a length Δs, or change in fulmentum. Units O·m. Symbol K = Γ·Δs = Δq.

impulse is a force F applied over a duration Δt, or the change in momentum. Units N·s. Symbol J = F·Δt = Δp.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

instant is an event of minimal or no duration.

instantaneous events occur in an instant.

isochronal events have equal duration.

isomacronal events have equal length.

legerity (le·jer′·i·ty) of a motion is the distimement per unit of its displacement magnitude. Symbol u. Mean legerity is Δws. Puncstanceous legerity is dw/ds = dw/|dr|. From Middle French legereté, quickness or lightness in movement.

length is the extent of a motion as measured by a rigid rod or a measuring wheel.

levitation is the mutual rush that all bodies have, which is directed toward the body with greater vass.

linear clock measures time as length.

linear motion is motion with constant angular direction.

Lorentz space-time is the relativistic 3D space + 1D time. It includes a factor, γ, along with the modal speed, c: r′ = γ (r – vt) and t′ = γ (tvr/c2) with γ = (1 – /c²)–1/2 such that |v| < c.

Lorentz time-space is the relativistic 1D space + 3D time. It includes a factor, λ, along with the modal pace, κ: t′ = λ (t – ur) and r′ = γ (rut/κ²) with λ = (1 – /κ²)–1/2 such that |u| < κ.

Lorentz transformation is the set of equations that relate space and time coordinates of reference frames moving at a constant velocity relative to each other.

macronological is ordered by a stance line. Greek macron, long.

macronology is a series of events ordered by a stance line.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion when a net force is applied. Inverse of vass. Units of kg. Symbol m.

matter is any substance with mass that occupies a place.

modal pace is the minimum (“free flow”) pace of the mode of observation, independent of any object motion. It serves as a general conversion between time and space. Symbolized by κ.

modal speed is the maximum (“free flow”) speed of the mode of observation, independent of any object motion. It serves as a general conversion between space and time. Symbolized by c.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as force times its distance from or toward a point or line in space.

momentum (linear) is the velocity weighted by (times) the mass. Latin. Units in kg m s‑1. Symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its placement and instant in a time line, or a continuous change of its timement and point in a stance line.

object is a body with a chronology and macronology.

pace of a motion is the space rate of duration change, that is, the ratio of time interval to a stance line interval without regard to direction. Symbol u. From racing. Units of s/m, min/km, etc. Puncstanceous pace is dt/ds, which equals the magnitude of puncstanceous legerity.

pace of light is the pace of light in a vacuum, which equals 3.335 641 ns/m. Symbolized by κ.

particle (point mass) is (1) a very small object with motion and mass; (2) an idealized point object with space position and mass.

period is an interval of a time line.

placement (or position) of a point is the displacement vector to it from a reference point.

point is an event of minimal or no length.

power is the time (duration) rate of doing work: P = dW/dt = F · v. Units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

proper length (or travel length) is the length of a body measured by a rigid rod moving with it.

proper time (or travel time) is the time of a body measured by a clock moving with it.

pseudo-duration is measured by length and expressed as time, as with multiplying length by the minimum pace.

pseudo-length is measured by time and expressed as length, as with multiplying time by the maximum speed.

puncstanceous events occur in a point.

reference frame (or frame) is an abstract coordinate system and set of reference points in space-time that uniquely fix the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

reference frame is a space-time coordinate system and set of reference points in space-time.

reference timeframe (or timeframe) is an abstract coordinate system and set of reference points in time-space that uniquely fix the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

reference timeframe is a time-space coordinate system and set of reference points in time-space.

rest frame of a body is the reference frame in which the body is moving at zero speed, which is the time conversion pace.

rotational facilia (fulment of facilia) is the second fulment of vass with respect to distimement w from an axis: J = ∫ w2 dn.

rotational inertia (moment of inertia) is the second moment of mass with respect to displacement r from an axis: I = ∫ r2 dm.

rush is the space (length) rate of change of fulmentum. Units in oldtons, O = kg-1 s m-2. Symbol Γ = nb = Δqs.

simulstanceity is a concept to determine which events happen at the same stance.

simulstanceous events occur at the same stance line point.

simultaneity is a concept that determines which events happen at the same time.

simultaneous events occur at the same time line point.

space is (1) length; (2) a 3D differentiable manifold of length with distance metric; (3) the order of events on a stance line; (4) the stance, the reading on an arcloge.

spacetime (spatiocosm) is a four-dimensional continuum with three dimensions of space and one dimension of scalar time (3+1).

space-time is 3D space with a time line (3+1), i.e., space parameterized by time.

speed of a motion is the time rate of length change, that is, the ratio of length interval to a time line interval without regard to direction. Symbol v. Units of m/s, km/hr, etc. Instantaneous speed is ds/dt, which equals the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.

speed of light is the speed of light in a vacuum, which equals 299 792 458 m/s. Symbolized by c.

stance line is a real number line; zero represents the 3D space origin point; negative numbers represent distances to events of decreasing distance from the origin; positive numbers represent distances to events of increasing distance.

straight motion is motion with constant turn direction.

stretch is an interval of a stance line.

strophence is the rate of change of angular fulmentum of a body, σ = Iβ. From Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

surge (1/work) is a rush Γ applied over a distimement w: X = Γ·w. For a constant rush: X = Γ Δt = Q Δs. Units O·s.

synchronize means to calibrate clocks for space-time. From Greek syn + chron + ize (“to occur at the same time”).

synmacronize means to calibrate measuring rods for 3D time + 1D space. From syn + macron + ize (“to occur at the same length”).

time is (1) duration; (2) a 3D differentiable manifold of duration with distime metric; (3) the order of events on a time line; (4) the time, the reading on a clock.

time line is a real number line; zero represents the 3D time origin instant; negative numbers represent distimes to events of decreasing distime from the origin; positive numbers represent distimes to events of increasing distime from the origin.

time rod measures length as time.

timement of an instant is the distimement vector to it from a reference instant.

timespace (temporocosm) is a four-dimensional continuum with one dimension of scalar space (stance) and three dimensions of time (1+3).

time-space is 3D time with a stance line (1+3), i.e., time parameterized by stance.

torque is the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, τ = Iα. Units: N·m.

transicle (point vass) is (1) a very small body with movement and vass; (2) an idealized point body with time position and vass. From transi(t) + (parti)cle.

traversal length (arc length) is the length along a path of motion; or the integral of space positions.

traversal time (arc time) is the duration along a path of motion; or the integral of time positions.

turn angle is a proportion of a revolution between two rays intersecting in an instant.

turn direction is the turn angle from a reference ray.

vass is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement when a net rush is applied. Inverse of mass. From vast. Units of kg-1. Symbol n.

velocity (vel∙o′∙ci∙ty) of a motion is the displacement per unit of its distimement magnitude. Symbol v. Mean velocity is Δrt. Instantaneous velocity is dr/dt = dr/|dw|. From Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement r: W = F· r. For a constant force: W = F Δs = P Δt. Units: J = N·m.

world line of a body is the 4D path the body traces in spacetime or timespace.