iSoul In the beginning is reality.

Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about base-duration (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding length-time (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

Note that the term time has multiple meanings: duration, distime, dischronment, and timeline. The term space also has multiple meanings: length, distance, displacement, and baseline.

The terms below are presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.
acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of duration; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; no acceleration is unaccelerated; units of m/s²; symbol a; instantaneous (timepoint) acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|.

angle (θ or ϕ) is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a spacepoint.

angle direction is the angle from a reference ray.

angular fulmentum for a particle timepoint is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × q, the cross product of the particle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, q = nu.

angular momentum for a particle spacepoint is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with location and chronation.

carrier (wave) is a body with elaphrance that fills an occasion; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

center of elaphrance (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of elaphrance; T = (1/N) Σi ti ni.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; R = (1/M) Σi ri mi.

chronation (or duration position) of a timepoint is the vector to it from the time origin; symbol t.

circular motion: stance circle S = wavelength λ = v/f; circular arc s; stance radius R; length angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

clock (horologe) device displays the present timepoint.

cyclic motion: duration period T = wave duration μ = u/h; rotation duration t; duration radius Q; duration angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = u/μ; angular lenticity u = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then u = h; if Q = 1, then u = κ = 2πh = θ/s.

dischronment is a trime vector; or the distime and turn direction between two timepoints.

displacement is a space vector; the distance and angle direction between two spacepoints.

distance is (1) the length of uniform motion between two spacepoints at a reference speed; (2) the absolute difference between two stance values; or (3) the magnitude of a displacement vector; symbol s.

distime is (1) the duration of uniform motion between two timepoints at a reference pace; (2) the absolute difference between two time values; or (3) the magnitude of a dischronment vector; symbol t.

drawing is a release G applied over a length ds or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol KR·ds = dq.

duration is the extent of a motion as measured by a stopwatch or clock, with a sign indicating the direction of measurement.

duration mean pace is the harmonic mean of paces with a common duration unit.

duration mean speed is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common duration unit.

duration scale is a ratio of map distime interval vs. actual distime interval.

elaphra is the release exerted on a body by levity.

elaphrance is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from elaphr + ance; units of kg–1; symbol n.

energy is the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E.

event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation; or the spacepoint and timepoint of an occurrence.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement; Latin for easy.

facilial system has bodies at rest or moving with constant lenticity.

force is the time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s–2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as elaphrance or release and its distime from/to a timepoint.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of elaphrance; J ≡ Σi ti2 ni.

fulmentum (ful∙men′∙tum) is the elaphrance times the lenticity; the space rate of change of the elaphrance-distime fulment; Latin, prop; units of kg‒1 s m‒1; symbol q = nu.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

impulse is a force F applied over a duration dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial system has bodies at rest or moving with constant velocity.

instantaneous (or timepoint) events occur in a timepoint.

isochron line shows equidistimed events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the set of ordered pairs of relative length and duration position, called location and chronation.

kinetic energy KE = ½ mv².

kinetic lethargy KL = ½ nu².

length is the extent of a motion as measured by a rigid rod or a measuring wheel, with a sign indicating the direction of measurement.

length mean pace is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common length unit.

length mean speed is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common length unit.

length scale is a ratio of map distance vs. actual distance.

lenticity (len·tis′·i·ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its dischronment to the change in stance; symbol u; mean lenticity is  ts; puncstanceous (or stancepoint) lenticity is dt/ds = dt/|ds|; from Latin lentus, slow, sluggish.

lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol D = 1/E.

levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of elaphrance.

location (or length position) of a spacepoint is the vector to it from the space origin; symbol s.

macrologe device displays the present stancepoint. puncstanceous events occur in a spacepoint.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of elaphrance; units of kg; symbol m.

matter (particle) is a body with mass that occupies a place; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI unit of length, distance, or stance.

metric of motion is the extent of motion as measured by length or duration.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its distance from/to a spacepoint/axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2 mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-distance moment; Latin, movement; units in kg m s‒1; symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its location and/or chronation.

pace of an event is its space rate of motion, that is, the ratio of its duration to the stance unit without regard to direction; symbol u; from racing; units of s/m, min/km, etc.; puncstanceous (or stancepoint) pace is dt/ds, which equals the magnitude of puncstanceous lenticity.

periods (of time) are timeline intervals.

placidity is the ratio of repose per unit of stanceline: Z ≡ dV/ds = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

power is the ratio of work per unit of duration: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

reference frame is a method of describing the location, velocity, and acceleration of a body.

reference timeframe is a method of describing the chronation, lenticity, and retardation of a body.

release is the space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg−1 s m−2; symbol R ≡ dq/ds, e,g., nb.

repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: X R·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Z ds; units O·s.

retardation is the change in the dischronment per unit of length; verb is retard with negative de-retard (or expedite); no retardation is unretarded; units s/m²; symbol b; puncstanceous (stancepoint) retardation du/ds = du/|ds|.

second is the SI unit of duration, distime.

simulstanceous events occur at the same stancepoint; n. simulstanceity.

simultaneous events occur at the same timepoint; noun simultaneity.

space is a Euclidean length manifold with three dimensions.

space origin is a reference spacepoint in the manifold.

spacepoint is an event with no length.

spaces (spans) are stanceline intervals.

spatial origin is the stancepoint of zero length.

speed of a body is its time rate of motion, that is, the ratio of its length to the duration unit without regard to direction; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.; instantaneous (or timepoint) speed is ds/dt, which equals the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.

stance is the sequence of increasing lengths marked by a body in uniform motion; symbol s.

stanceline is a line of stancepoints in increasing order.

stancepoint is a length in this sequence.

strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum of a body, σ = Iβ; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronous, has the same timepoints; verb synchronize, make synchronous.

synstanceous, has the same stancepoints; vb. synstancize, make synstaneous.

temporal origin is the timepoint of zero duration.

time is the sequence of increasing durations marked by a body in uniform motion; symbol t.

time origin is a reference timepoint in the manifold.

timeline is a line of timepoints in increasing order.

timepoint is a duration in this sequence.

timepoint is an event with no duration.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, τ = Iα; units: N·m.

travel distance (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc duration) is the duration along a curve.

trime is a Euclidean duration manifold with three dimensions.

turn angle (χ or ψ) is a proportion of a uniform revolution between two rays intersecting in a timepoint.

turn direction is the turn angle from a reference ray.

velocity (vel∙o′∙ci∙ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its displacement to the change in time; symbol v; mean velocity is rt; instantaneous (or timepoint) velocity is ds/dt = ds/|dt|; from Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement s: W F· s; for a constant force: W = F ds = P dt; units: J = N·m.