In order to speak with precision about *time terms* (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding *space terms* (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in this pdf: ** Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics**.

The terms below are from the *Parallel Glossary of Space and Time for Classical Physics* presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

**acceleration **is the change of velocity per unit of time; verb *accelerate*; negative is *decelerate*; zero is *unaccelerated*; *instantaneous acceleration* is d**v**/d*t*; units of m/s²; symbol **a**.

**angular levamentum **for a tempicle time point is the punctum of levamentum, **Γ** ≡ **t** × **h**, the cross product of the tempicle’s* chronation *vector, **t**, and its* levamentum *vector, **h** = *n***w**.

**angular momentum **for a particle space point is the moment of momentum, **L** ≡ **r** × **p**, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, **r**, and its momentum vector, **p** = *m***v**.

**arc duration** is the duration along a curve.

**arc length** is the length along a curve.

**body** is a physical entity with spatial and temporal position and extent.

**carrier **is a body with *vass* that fills a *time*; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

**Cartesian coordinates** of an event in **ℝ**^{3} × **ℝ**^{3} are: *x*_{1}**e**_{x1} + *x*_{2}**e**_{x2} + *x*_{3}**e**_{x3} and *t*_{1}**e**_{t1} + *t*_{2}**e**_{t2} + *t*_{3}**e**_{t3} = (*x*_{1}, *x*_{2}, *x*_{3}; *t*_{1}, *t*_{2}, *t*_{3}) = (**x**; **t**), where *x*_{i} and *t*_{i} are rectilinear spatial and temporal coordinates respectively, **x** is the vector of location, and **t** is the vector of chronation.

**centre of mass **(or *barycentre*) is the normalized moment of mass; **M** = Σ_{i} **r**_{i} *m*_{i}/Σ_{i} *m*_{i}.

**centre of vass **(or *elaphrocentre*) is the normalized punctum of vass; **N** = Σ_{i} **t**_{i} *n*_{i}/Σ_{i} *n*_{i}.

**chronation** is temporal position.

**chronation** is temporal position; the temporal coordinates; symbol **t**.

**circular motion: **space circle S = wavelength *λ* = 1/*h* =* μ*/*w* = *v*/*f*; circular arc *s*; space radius R; (spatial) angle *θ* = *s*/R; frequency *f* = 1/T = *v*/*λ*; angular velocity *v* = S/T = *λf*; if S = 1, then *v* = *f*; if R = 1, then *v* = *ω* = 2π*f* = *θ*/*t*.

**clock** (horologe) is a device that displays the duration to the present chronation from the time origin at a standard rate.

**cyclic motion: **time period T = wavetime *μ*** = **1/f =* λ*/*v* = *w*/*h*; rotation time *t*; time radius Q; turn angle *ϕ* =* t*/Q; periodicity* h *= 1/S =* w*/*μ*; angular lenticity* w *= T/S =* μh*; if T = 1, then* w *=* h*; if Q = 1, then* w *=* κ *= 2π*h *=* θ*/*s*.

**dependent variables** (or functions) are measures dependent on an independent variable.

**diachronic** events occur through time.

**direction** is the position toward which a body moves; it applies to vectors of space or time.

**dischronment** is the vector from one time point to another in duration space.

**displacement** is the vector from one space point to another in length space.

**distance** is the magnitude of displacement.

**duration **is the magnitude of dischronment.

**duration frame** of an observer or body is a frame in standard motion relative to it.

**elapsed distance** is the distance covered by a reference motion.

**elapsed time** (distime) is the time covered by a reference motion.

**energy**: the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol *E*; energy is conserved over time.

**event **is a physical occurrence with location and chronation.

**facilia **is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of motion; Latin for *easy*.

**facilial frame** (or system) bodies without external releases move with uniform lenticity.

**force **is the agency that tends to change the momentum of a body; time rate of change of *momentum*; units in newtons, N = kg m s^{−2}; symbol **F** ≡ d**p**/d*t*, e.g., *m***a**.

**frame of reference** (frame) is a method to assign each body a unique spatial or temporal position in a coordinate system of points in **ℝ**^{3}.

**frame of reference system** is a method to assign every *event* a unique location and chronation in a coordinate system of points in ℝ^{3} × ℝ^{3}.

**gravitation **is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual centre of mass.

**hodologe** is a device that displays the distance to the present location from the space origin at a standard rate.

**impulse **is a force** F **applied over a time d*t*, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol **J** ≡ **F**·d*t* = d**p**.

**independent variable** is a quantity determined by the experimenter.

**inertia **is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

**inertial frame **(or system) has bodies without external forces move with uniform velocity.

**instantaneous** event occurs in a single time point.

**isochron line** shows *equiduration* events.

**isodistance line** shows *equidistant* events.

**kinematics **is the study of spatial and temporal positions and extents.

**kinetic energy** KE = ½*m***v**².

**kinetic lethargy** KL = ½*n***w**².

**length** is a 3D space interval.

**length frame** of an observer or body is a frame of reference at rest relative to it.

**length scale** (or distance sc.) is a ratio of map length *vs* actual length.

**lenticity** (len·tic′·i·ty) (or inverse velocity) is the space rate of dischronment, Δ**t**/Δ*x*; *punctaneous lenticity* is the derivative of dischronment with respect to time, d**t**/d*x*; symbol **w**; from Latin *lentus*, slow.

**lethargy **is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol *D* = 1/*E*; lethargy is conserved over distance.

**levage** is the* release *exerted on a body by* levity* (from French).

**levamentum **is the inverse momentum, *vass* times the *lenticity*; the space rate of change of the vass-time punctum; plural, *puncta*; Latin, point; units of kg^{−1} s m^{−1}; symbol **q** = *n***w**.

**levitation **is the mutual *release* that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual centre of *vass*.

**location** is spatial position.

**location** is spatial position; the spatial coordinates; symbol **x**.

**mass **is a measure of a body’s inertia; the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of* vass*; units of kg; symbol* m*.

**matter **is a body with *mass* that occupies a space; a measure of the energy content of a body.

**metre** is the SI unit of length, distance, and stance.

**moment **is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its length from/to a space point/axis.

**moment of inertia** is the second moment of mass; *I* ≡ Σ_{i} *r*_{i}^{2}*m*_{i}.

**momentum **(linear) is the *mass* times the *velocity*; the time rate of change of the mass-length moment; plural, *momenta*; units in kg m s^{−1}; symbol **p** = *m***v**.

**motion of a body** is a continuous change of its location and chronation.

**observer** is a frame associated with a body.

**odometer** (or hodometer) is a device that measures the arc length of motion between space points.

**pace** (or inverse speed) is the space rate of change of chronation without regard to direction, Δ*t*/Δ*x*; *punctaneous pace* is the magnitude of punctaneous lenticity: d*t*/d*x*; *pace* is from racing (cf *ritmo*); symbol *w*; units of s/m, etc.

**particle** is a material point with mass and temporal extension.

**peel **is a *release*** G **applied over a length d*x* or change in *levamentum*; units O·m; symbol **K** ≡ **R**·d*x* = d**h**.

**perstancial **events occur through stance.

**placidity **is the space rate of repose effected: *Q* ≡ d*V*/d*x* = **R**·**u**; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

**power **is the time rate of work done: *P* ≡ d*W*/d*t *= **F** ·**v**; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

**punctaneous** event occurs in a single stance point.

**punctum **is the product of a physical quantity such as *vass* or *release* and its time from/to a time point.

**punctum of facilia** is the second punctum of vass; *J* ≡ Σ_{i} *t*_{i}^{2}*n*_{i}.

**reciprocal addition** (or harmonic or parallel) is the reciprocal of the addend reciprocals; symbol ⊞.

**release **is the agency that tends to change the levamentum of a body; space rate of change of *levamentum*; units in* oldtons*, O = kg^{−1} s m^{−2}; symbol **R** ≡ d**q**/d*x*, e,g.,* n***b**.

**relentment **is the change of lenticity per unit of length; verb *relent*; negative is* derelent*; zero is* unrelented*; *punctaneous relentment* d**w**/d*x*; units s/m²; symbol **b**; from *re-* + Latin *lentus*, slow.

**repose **(inverse of work) is a release** R **applied over a* dischronment ***t**:* Z *≡ **R**·**t**; for a constant* release*:* Y = R *d*t *=* Q *d*x*; units O·s.

**second** is the SI unit of time and duration.

**simulstanceous **events all occur at the same stance; n. *simulstanceity*.

**simultaneous** events all occur at the same time; n. *simultaneity*.

**space frame** of an observer or body is a frame at rest relative to it.

**space mean pace or lenticity **is the arithmetic mean of paces or lenticities with a common length unit.

**space mean speed or velocity** is the harmonic mean of speeds or velocities with a common length unit.

**space origin** is the origin of a spatial coordinate system.

**space point** (point) is a spatial point.

**spatial** means relative to the space frame.

**speed** of a body is the time rate of change of location without regard to direction, Δ*x*/Δ*t*;* instantaneous speed* is the derivative of distance traversed with respect to time, d*x*/d*t*; symbol *v*; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.

**stance** (scalar space) is a point on a stanceline.

**stanceline** is a number line of distances to (counting down) and/or away from (counting up) the space origin; symbol *s*.

**stopwatch** is a device that measures the arc time of motion between time points.

**strophence **is the punctum of release; the rate of change of angular *levamentum*, **σ** *=* I**β** = **t** × **R**; from Greek *strophe*, turn + (e)*nce.*

**synchronous** events occur at the same times; vb. *synchronize*, to make synchronous.

**synstanceous** events occur at the same stances; vb. *synstancize*, to make* synstanceous*.

**tempicle** is a material time point with vass and spatial extension.

**temporal** means relative to the time frame.

**time** (scalar time) is a point (instant) on a timeline.

**time mean pace or lenticity** is the harmonic mean of paces or lenticities with a common time unit.

**time mean speed or velocity **is the arithmetic mean of speeds or velocities with a common time unit.

**time origin** is the origin of a temporal coordinate system.

**time point** (instant) is a temporal point.

**time scale** (or duration sc.) is a ratio of map time *vs* actual time intervals.

**timeline** is a number line of durations before (counting down) and/or after (counting up) the time origin; symbol *t*.

**torque **is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum, **τ** *=* I**α** = **r** × **F**; units: N·m.

**traversed distance** is the distance covered by a motion in length space.

**traversed time** (distime) is the time covered by a motion in duration space.

**vass** measures a body’s facilia; nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net *release* is applied; inverse of mass; from (in)*v*(erse) (m)*ass*; units of kg^{−1}; symbol *n*.

**velocity** is the time rate of displacement, Δ**x**/Δ*t*; *instantaneous velocity* is the derivative of displacement with respect to time, d**x**/d*t*; symbol **v**; from Latin *velocitas*, rapidity.

**weight** is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

**work **is a force** F **applied over a displacement** x**: *W* ≡** F**·** x**; for a constant force: *W = F* d*x* = *P* d*t*; units: J = N·m.