iSoul In the beginning is reality.

Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about time terms (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space terms (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

The terms below are presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of duration; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; no acceleration is unaccelerated; units of m/s²; symbol a; instantaneous (timepoint) acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of duration; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; no acceleration is unaccelerated; units of m/s²; symbol a; instantaneous acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|.

angle (θ or ϕ) is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a place point.

angle direction is the angle from a reference ray.

angular fulmentum for a particle time point is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × q, the cross product of the particle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, q = nu.

angular momentum for a particle place point is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with spatial and temporal extent and position.

carrier (wave) is a body with elaphrance that fills a trime; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

center of elaphrance (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of elaphrance; T = (1/N) Σi ti ni.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; R = (1/M) Σi ri mi.

chronation of a time point is the trime vector to it from the time origin; symbol t.

circular motion: space circle S = wavelength λ = v/f; circular arc s; space radius R; (spatial) angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

co-located events occur at the same place; n. co-location.

cyclic motion: time period T = wave duration μ = u/h; rotation time t; time radius Q; turn angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = u/μ; angular lenticity u = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then u = h; if Q = 1, then u = κ = 2πh = θ/s.

dischronment is a trime vector; or the distime and turn direction between two trime points.

displacement is a space vector; the distance and angle direction between two place points.

distance is (1) the length of standard uniform motion between two place points; (2) the magnitude of a displacement vector.

distime (time) is (1) the duration of standard uniform motion between two time points; (2) the magnitude of a dischronment vector; symbol t.

drawing is a release G applied over a length ds or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol KR·ds = dq.

duration is the extent of a body’s motion as measured by an observer at rest.

duration scale is a ratio of map distime interval vs. actual distime interval.

elaphra is the release exerted on a body by levity.

elaphrance is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from elaphr + ance; units of kg–1; symbol n.

energy is the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E.

event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement; Latin for easy.

facilial system has bodies at rest or moving with uniform lenticity.

force is the time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s–2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

frame of reference is an imaginary lattice of rigid rods at rest relative to an observer that enables every place point of space to be uniquely identified.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as elaphrance or release and its distime from/to a time point.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of elaphrance; J ≡ Σi ti2 ni.

fulmentum (ful∙men′∙tum) is the elaphrance times the lenticity; the space rate of change of the elaphrance-distime fulment; Latin, prop; units of kg‒1 s m‒1; symbol q = nu.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

horologe (clock) is a device that displays the present point on a timeline.

impulse is a force F applied over a duration dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial system has bodies at rest or moving with uniform velocity.

instantaneous (timepoine) events occur in a time point.

isochron line shows equidistimed events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the set of ordered pairs of spatial and temporal position, called location and chronation, respectively.

kinetic energy KE = ½ mv².

kinetic lethargy KL = ½ nu².

length is the extent of a body at rest as measured by an observer in uniform motion.

length scale is a ratio of map distance vs. actual distance.

lenticity see space lenticity and time lenticity.

lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol D = 1/E.

levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of elaphrance.

location of a place point is the space vector to it from the space origin; symbol s.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of elaphrance; units of kg; symbol m.

matter (particle) is a body with mass that occupies a space; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI unit of length, distance, or space.

metreloge is a device that displays the present point on a placeline.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its distance from/to a place point/axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2 mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-distance moment; Latin, movement; units in kg m s‒1; symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its position relative to an observer.

observer is a body capable of measurement.

pace, see space pace and time pace.

periods (of time) are timeline intervals.

place point (or placepoint) is a point in space.

placeline is a sequence of place points marked on a frame at rest by a body in relative uniform motion; symbol s.

placepoint events occur in a place point.

placidity is the ratio of repose per unit of length: Z ≡ dV/ds = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

power is the ratio of work per unit of duration: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

release is the space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg−1 s m−2; symbol R ≡ dq/ds, e,g., nb.

repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: X R·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Z ds; units O·s.

retardation is the change in the dischronment per unit of length; verb is retard with negative de-retard (or expedite); no retardation is unretarded; units s/m²; symbol b; placepoint retardation du/ds = du/|ds|.

second is the SI unit of duration, distime.

simultaneous (co-chronated) events occur at the same time; noun simultaneity.

space is the structure of places in R3.

space lenticity (lenticity) (len·tis′·i·ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its dischronment to the change in place; symbol u; placepoint lenticity is dt/ds = dt/|ds|. From Latin lentus, slow, sluggish.

space mean pace is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common length unit.

space mean speed is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common length unit.

space origin is a reference place point in space.

space pace (pace) of a body in motion is its duration of motion per unit of length without regard to direction; symbol u; from racing; units of s/m, min/km, etc.; placepoint pace is dt/ds, which equals the magnitude of placepoint lenticity.

space speed of a body in motion is the inverse of its space pace.

space velocity of a body in motion is the inverse of its space lenticity.

spaces (spans) are placeline intervals.

speed, see space speed and time speed.

strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum of a body, σ = Iβ; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronous, has the same time points; verb synchronize, make synchronous.

synlocal, has the same place points; vb. synlocalize, make synlocal.

time lenticity of a body in motion is the inverse of its time velocity.

time mean pace is the harmonic mean of paces with a common time unit.

time mean speed is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common time unit.

time origin is a reference time point in trime.

time pace of a body in motion is the inverse of its time speed.

time point (or timepoint) is a point in trime.

time speed (speed) of a body in motion is its length of motion per unit of duration without regard to direction; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.; instantaneous speed is ds/dt, which equals the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.

time velocity (velocity) (vel∙o′∙ci∙ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its displacement to the change in time; symbol v; instantaneous velocity is ds/dt = ds/|dt|. From Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

timeframe of reference is an imaginary lattice of rigid rods in uniform motion relative to an observer that enables every time point of trime to be uniquely identified.

timeline is a sequence of time points marked on a frame in motion by a body at relative rest; symbol t.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, τ = Iα; units: N·m.

travel distance (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc duration) is the duration along a curve.

trime (3D time) is the structure of times in R3.

turn angle (χ or ψ) is a proportion of a uniform revolution between two rays intersecting in a time point.

turn direction is the turn angle from a reference ray.

velocity see time velocity and space velocity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement s: W F· s; for a constant force: W = F ds = P dt; units: J = N·m.