iSoul In the beginning is reality.

Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about time terms (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space terms (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

The terms below are from the Parallel Glossary of Space and Time for Classical Physics presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of duration; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; zero acceleration is unaccelerated; instantaneous acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|; units of m/s²; symbol a.

angular fulmentum for a particle time point is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × h, the cross product of the particle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, h = nw.

angular momentum for a particle space point is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with spatial and temporal extent and position.

carrier (wave) is a body with elaphrance that fills a time; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

Cartesian coordinates of an event are six dimensions: x1ex1 + x2ex2 + x3ex3 + t1et1 + t2et2 + t3et3 = (x1, x2, x3; t1, t2, t3) = (x; t), where xi are rectilinear coordinates in space, ti are rectilinear coordinates in time, x is the vector of location in space, and t is the vector of chronation in time.

center of elaphrance (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of elaphrance; N = Σi ti nii ni.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; M = Σi ri mii mi.

chronation of a time point is its coordinates; symbol t.

circular motion: space circle S = wavelength λ = 1/h = μ/w = v/f; circular arc s; space radius R; (spatial) angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

clock (horologe) is a device that displays time increasing at a standard rate.

cyclic motion: time period T = wave duration μ = 1/f = λ/v = w/h; rotation time t; time radius Q; turn angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = w/μ; angular lenticity w = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then w = h; if Q = 1, then w = κ = 2πh = θ/s.

diachronic events are through time.

dischronment is a vector in time.

displacement is a vector in space.

distance is the metric of 3.

drawing is a release G applied over a length dx or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol KR·dx = dh.

duration is an extent in time.

duration scale is a ratio of map duration interval vs actual duration interval.

elaphra is the release exerted on a body by levity.

elaphrance is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from elaphr + ance; units of kg–1; symbol n.

energy is the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E; energy is conserved.

event is a physical occurrence with one location and one chronation.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement; Latin for easy.

facilial system has bodies at rest or moving with uniform lenticity.

force is the time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s–2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

frame of reference (frame) is a physical system that assigns to every event a unique 3 position.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as elaphrance or release and its duration from/to a time point.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of elaphrance; J ≡ Σi ti2 ni.

fulmentum is the elaphrance times the lenticity; the space rate of change of the elaphrance-duration fulment; Latin, prop; units of kg‒1 s m‒1; symbol q = nu.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

impulse is a force F applied over a duration dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp.

in space means relative to the static frame.

in time means relative to the kinetic frame.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial system has bodies at rest or moving with uniform velocity.

instantaneous event occurs in a time point.

isochron line shows equiduration events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the study of spatial and temporal positions, called locations and chronations.

kinetic energy KE = ½ mv².

kinetic frame of an observer or body is a frame in standard motion relative to it.

kinetic lethargy KL = ½ nw².

length is an extent in space.

length scale (or distance sc.) is a ratio of map length vs actual length.

lenticity (len·tis′·i·ty): Δts (1a) space lenticity of a motion is the dischronment traversed per unit of length elapsed; (1b) time lenticity (moment velocity) of a motion is the dischronment traversed per unit of length elapsed at an instant in time; (2) punctaneous lenticity is dt/dx; symbol w; Latin lentus, slow, sluggish.

lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol D = 1/E; lethargy is restricted.

levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of elaphrance.

linear duration (or distime) is the duration of standard motion between two time points.

linear length (or distance) is the length of a line between two space points.

location of a space point is its coordinates; symbol x.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of elaphrance; units of kg; symbol m.

matter (particle) is a body with mass that occupies a space; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI metric unit of length and stance.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its length from/to a space point/axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2 mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-length moment; Latin, movement; units in kg m s‒1; symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its position relative to an observer.

observer is a means of measurement with static and kinetic frames or devices.

odologe is an odometer that increases at a standard rate.

odometer is a device that measures the length of motion between space points.

pace: space pace of a motion is the time spent per unit of independent length (running length) without regard to direction; time pace (or moment pace) of a motion is the (short) time traversed per unit of length elapsed at a chronation; punctaneous pace is dt/dx = |dt/dx|; the term pace is from racing; symbol u; units of s/m, min/km, etc.

perstantial events are through stance.

placidity is the ratio of repose per unit of length: Q ≡ dV/dx = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

power is the ratio of work per unit of duration: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

punctaneous event occurs in a space point.

release is the space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg−1 s m−2; symbol R ≡ dq/dx, e,g., nb.

repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: Z R·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Q dx; units O·s.

retardation is the change in the dischronment per unit of length; verb is retard with negative de-retard (or expedite); zero retardation is unretarded; punctaneous retardation dw/dx = dw/|dx|; units s/m²; symbol b.

second is the SI metric unit of duration and time.

simulstanceous events all occur at the same stance; n. simulstanceity.

simultaneous events all occur at the same time; n. simultaneity.

space mean pace is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common length unit.

space mean speed is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common length unit.

space point (point) is a point in space.

speed: time speed of a motion is the length traversed per unit of independent duration (running time) without regard to direction; space speed (or spot speed) of a motion is the (short) length traversed per unit of duration elapsed at a location; instantaneous speed is dx/dt = |dx/dt|; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.

stance interval is a segment of a stanceline.

stance is the kinetic frame origin position along the standard motion line in space.

stance vector is the kinetic frame origin position vector in space.

stanceline is a series of stances.

standard motion is a fixed rate and direction of uniform motion set by convention.

static frame of an observer or body is a frame at rest relative to it.

stopwatch is a device that measures the duration of motion between time points.

strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum, σ = Iβ = t × R; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronic events are within a time period.

synchronous, have the same times; vb. synchronize, make synchronous.

synstanteous events have the same stances; vb. synstantize, make synstanteous.

synstantial events are within a stance interval.

time interval is a segment of a timeline.

time is the static frame origin position along the standard motion line in time.

time mean pace is the harmonic mean of paces with a common duration unit.

time mean speed is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common time unit.

time point (event) is one instant in time.

time vector is the static frame origin position vector in time.

timeline is a series of times.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum, τ = Iα = r × F; units: N·m.

travel length (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc duration) is the duration along a curve.

velocity: Δxt (1a) time velocity of a motion is the displacement traversed per unit of duration elapsed; (1b) space velocity (spot velocity) of a motion is the displacement traversed per unit of duration elapsed at a point in space; (2) instantaneous velocity is dx/dt; symbol v; Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement x: W F· x; for a constant force: W = F dx = P dt; units: J = N·m.