iSoul In the beginning is reality.

Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about base-duration (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding length-time (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

Note that the term time has multiple meanings: duration, distime, dischronment, and timeline. The term space also has multiple meanings: length, distance, displacement, and baseline.

The terms below are presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of its dischronment magnitude; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; no acceleration is unaccelerated; units of m/s²; symbol a; timepoint acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|.

alacrity is the ratio of surge per unit of stanceline: Z ≡ dV/ds = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

angle (θ or ϕ) is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a point.

angle direction is the angle from a reference ray.

angular fulmentum for a transicle is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × q, the cross product of the particle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, q = nu.

angular momentum for a point particle is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with location and chronation.

carrier (wave) is a body with vass that fills an occasion; a measure of the reserve content of a body.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; R = (1/M) Σi ri mi.

center of vass (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of vass; T = (1/N) Σi ti ni.

chronation (duration position) of an instant in a duration manifold is the dischronment vector to it from the origin instant; symbol t.

chronus is the set of all instants meeting some criteria.

circular motion: stance circle S = wavelength λ = v/f; circular arc s; stance radius R; length angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

clock device displays the present timepoint.

cyclic motion: time period T = wave duration μ = u/h; rotation time t; time radius Q; duration angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = u/μ; angular legerity u = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then u = h; if Q = 1, then u = ψ = 2πh = θ/s.

dischronment is a vector of distime and turn direction between two instants.

displacement is a vector of distance and angle direction between two points.

duration is the extent of a motion as measured by a stopwatch or clock, with a sign indicating the direction of measurement.

duration manifold (3D time) is a Euclidean manifold of three duration dimensions.

duration origin is a reference instant.

elaphra is the rush exerted on a body by levity.

energy is the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E.

event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation.

event order is a stanceline or timeline.

expedience is the change in the dischronment per unit of its displacement magnitude; verb is expedite with negative de-expedite; no expedience is inexpedienced; units of s/m²; symbol b; stancepoint expedience is du/ds = du/|ds|.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement; Latin for easy.

facilial system has bodies at rest or moving with constant legerity.

force is the duration rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s‒2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as vass or rush and its time interval from or to an instant.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of vass; J ≡ Σi ti2 ni.

fulmentum (ful∙men′∙tum) is the vass times the legerity; the length rate of change of the vass-distime fulment; Latin, prop, support; units of kg‒1 s m‒1; symbol q = nu.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

hustle is a rush G applied over a length ds, or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol K R·ds = dq. surge (inverse of work) is a rush R applied over a dischronment t: XR·t; for a constant rush: Y = R dt = Z ds; units O·s.

impulse is a force F applied over a duration dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp. work is a force F applied over a displacement s: WF· s; for a constant force: W = F ds = P dt; units: J = N·m.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial system has bodies at rest or moving with constant velocity.

instant is an event with no duration.

instantaneous events occur in an instant.

isochron line shows equidistimed events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the set of ordered pairs of relative length and duration position, called location and chronation.

kinetic energy KE = ½ mv².

kinetic reserve KR = ½ nu².

legerity (le·jer′·i·ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its dischronment to the change in stanceline; symbol u; mean legerity is Δts; stancepoint (puncstanceous) legerity is dt/ds = dt/|ds|; from Mid. French legereté, quickness or lightness in movement.

length is the extent of a motion as measured by a rigid rod or a measuring wheel, with a sign indicating the direction of measurement.

length manifold (3D space) is a Euclidean manifold of three length dimensions.

length origin is a reference point.

length scale is a ratio of map distance vs. actual distance.

levitation is the mutual rush that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of vass.

location (or length position) of a point in a length manifold is the displacement vector to it from the origin point; symbol s.

locus is the set of all points meeting some criteria.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of vass; units of kg; symbol m.

matter (particle) is a body with mass that occupies a place; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI unit of length, distance, stance, or space interval.

metreloge device displays the present stancepoint.

metric of motion is the extent of motion as measured by length or duration.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its space interval from or to a point or axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2 mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-distance moment; Latin; units in kg m s‒1; symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its location and chronation.

pace of a motion is the space rate of duration change, that is, the ratio of its duration to the stance unit without regard to direction; symbol u; from racing; units of s/m, min/km, etc.; stancepoint (puncstanceous) pace is dt/ds, which equals the magnitude of stancepoint legerity.

period (of duration) is a timeline interval.

point is an event with no length.

power is the ratio of work per unit of time: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

puncstanceous events occur in a point.

reference frame is a method of describing the location, velocity, and acceleration of a body.

reference timeframe is a method of describing the chronation, legerity, and expedience of a body.

reserve (lethargy) is the capacity for surge; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol Q = 1/E.

rush is the length rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg‒1 s m‒2; symbol R ≡ dq/ds, e,g., nb.

second is the SI unit of duration, distime, or time, or time interval.

simulstanceity is the relation between events with the same stancepoint; adj. simulstanceous.

simultaneity is the relation between events with the same timepoint; adjective simultaneous.

space interval (distance) is (1) the length of uniform motion between two points in 3D space; (2) the absolute difference between two stance values; or (3) the magnitude of a displacement vector; symbol s.

space mean pace (SMP) is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common space unit.

space mean speed (SMS) is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common space unit.

spaces are stanceline intervals.

speed of a motion is the time rate of length change, that is, the ratio of its length to the time unit without regard to direction; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.; timepoint (instantaneous) speed is ds/dt, which equals the magnitude of timepoint velocity.

stance or station is an independent length variable of uniform motion; equals the location vector magnitude of simulstanceous points; symbol s; adj. stancial.

stanceline is an ordering of events by their stancepoints.

stancepoint n. is a stance value.

strophence is the fulment of rush; the rate of change of angular fulmentum of a body, σ = Iβ; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronous, has the same timepoints; verb synchronize, make synchronous.

synstanceous, has the same stancepoints; vb. synstancize, make synstaneous.

time interval (distime) is (1) the duration of uniform motion between two instants in 3D time; (2) the absolute difference between two time values; or (3) the magnitude of a dischronment vector; symbol t.

time is an independent duration variable of uniform motion; equals the chronation vector magnitude of simultaneous instants; symbol t; adj. temporal.

time mean pace (TMP) is the harmonic mean of paces with a common time unit.

time mean speed (TMS) is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common time unit.

time scale is a ratio of map time interval vs. actual time interval.

timeline is an ordering of events by their timepoints.

timepoint n. is a time value.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, τ = Iα; units: N·m.

travel distance (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc duration) is the duration along a curve.

turn angle (χ or ψ) is a proportion of a uniform revolution between two rays intersecting in an instant.

turn direction is the turn angle from a reference ray.

vass (or spread) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement as a net rush is applied; inverse of mass; from vast; units of kg‒1; symbol n.

velocity (vel∙o′∙ci∙ty) of a body in motion is the ratio of its displacement to the change in time; symbol v; mean velocity is Δrt; timepoint (instantaneous) velocity is ds/dt = ds/|dt|; from Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.