In order to speak with precision about time-space (1D space + 3D time) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space-time (3D space + 1 D time) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new time-space terms are placed parallel to their corresponding space-time terms in two pdf’s, ** Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics & Transportation** and

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**Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics**Note that the term *time* has multiple meanings: duration, distime, distimement, 3D time, scalar time. These correspond to the meanings of *space*: length, distance, displacement, 3D space.

The terms below are presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

**acceleration** is the change in the *displacement* per unit of its distimement magnitude. Verb is *accelerate* with negative *decelerate*. Faster acceleration is in the direction of motion. Units of m/s². Symbol **a**.

**alacrity** is the space (length) rate of surge: *Q* = d*V*/d*s* = **Γ**·**u**. Units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

**angle **is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a point.

**angular direction** is the angle from a reference ray.

**angular fulmentum** for a transicle is the cross product of the particle’s time position vector, **w** (relative to an origin), and its *fulmentum* vector, **q** = n**u**.

**angular momentum** for a point particle is the cross product of the particle’s position vector, **r** (relative to an origin), and its momentum vector, **p** = m**v**.

**arcloge** (arc′∙loje) is a cyclic or wheeled length measuring device that continues indefinitely, has a standard starting point, and displays *the local stance*.

**body** is an entity composed of contiguous points and instants.

**center of mass** (or *bathycenter*) is the mean point in space of the particles of a body, weighted by their masses.

**center of vass** (or *elaphrocenter*) is the mean instant in time of the *transicles* of a body, weighted by their vasses.

**chronological** is ordered by a time line. Greek *chron,* time.

**chronology** is a series of events ordered by a time line.

**clock** (or *horologe*) is a stopwatch or other duration measuring device that runs indefinitely, has a standard starting instant, and displays *the present time*.

**displacement** is the vector of distance and angular direction between two points.

**distance** is the length of linear motion between two points.

**distime** is the duration of straight motion between two instants.

**distimement** is the vector of distime and turn direction between two instants. From *dis+time+ment*.

**dual Lorentz transformation** is the set of equations that relate space and time coordinates of reference timeframes moving at a constant legerity relative to each other.

**duration** is the extent of a motion as measured by a stopwatch or clock.

**effectivity** is the capacity for surge. Units, 1/J = O·s. Symbol *X* = 1/*E*.

**elaphra** is the *rush* exerted on a body by *levity*.

**energy** is the capacity for doing work. Units, J = N·m = W·s. Symbol *E*.

**event** is a physical occurrence.

**expedience **is the change in the *distimement* per unit of its displacement magnitude. Verb is *expedite* with negative *de-expedite*. Faster expedience is in the opposite direction of motion. Units of s/m². Symbol **b**.

**extent** is the range of values.

**facilia **(linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement. Latin for *easy*.

**force** is the time (duration) rate of change of *momentum***.** Units in newtons, N = kg m s^{‑2}. Symbol **F** = *m***a** = Δ**p**/Δ*t*.

**form** is any substance with *vass* that occupies a period.

**freeflow timeframe** of a body is the reference timeframe in which the body is moving at zero pace, which is the stance conversion speed.

**fulment** is the product of a physical quantity such as *rush* times its distime from or toward an instant or line in time

**fulmentum** (ful∙men′∙tum) is the *legerity* weighted by (times) the *vass*. Latin, prop, support. Units of kg^{‑1} s m^{‑1}. Symbol * q* =

*n*.

**u****Galilean space-time** is a context in which the measurement of time is the same for all observers (i.e., absolute time), and the measurement of space is relative to the motion of each observer. The Galilean space-time transformation of space is: *r´* = *r – vt*.

**Galilean time-space** is a context in which the measurement of space is the same for all observers (i.e., absolute stance), and the measurement of time is relative to the motion of each observer. The Galilean time-space transformation of time is: *t´* = *t – ur*.

**gravitation** is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the body with greater mass.

**impetus** is a *rush* **Γ** applied over a length Δ*s*, or change in *fulmentum*. Units O·m. Symbol **K = Γ**·Δ*s* = Δ**q**.

**impulse** is a force **F** applied over a duration Δ*t*, or the change in momentum. Units N·s. Symbol **J** = **F**·Δ*t* = Δ**p**.

**inertia** (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

**instant** is an event of minimal or no duration.

**instantaneous** events occur in an instant.

**isochronal** events have equal duration.

**isomacronal** events have equal length.

**legerity** (le·jer′·i·ty) of a motion is the *distimement* per unit of its displacement magnitude. Symbol **u**. Mean legerity is Δ**w**/Δ*s*. *Puncstanceous* *legerity* is d**w**/d*s* = d**w**/|d**r**|. From Middle French *legereté*, quickness or lightness in movement.

**length** is the extent of a motion as measured by a rigid rod or a measuring wheel.

**levitation** is the mutual *rush* that all bodies have, which is directed toward the body with greater *vass*.

**linear clock** measures time as length.

**linear motion** is motion with constant angular direction.

**Lorentz space-time** is the relativistic 3D space + 1D time. It includes a factor, γ, along with the modal speed, *c*: *r′* = *γ* (*r – vt*) and *t′* = *γ* (*t* – *vr*/*c ^{2}*) with

*γ*= (1 –

*v²*/

*c*²)

^{–1/2}such that |

*v*| <

*c*.

**Lorentz time-space** is the relativistic 1D space + 3D time. It includes a factor, *λ*, along with the modal pace, *κ*: *t′* = *λ* (*t – ur*) and *r′* = *γ* (*r* – *ut*/*κ*²) with *λ* = (1 – *u²*/*κ*²)^{–1/2} such that |*u*| < *κ*.

**Lorentz transformation** is the set of equations that relate space and time coordinates of reference frames moving at a constant velocity relative to each other.

**macronological** is ordered by a stance line. Greek *macron,* long.

**macronology** is a series of events ordered by a stance line.

**mass** is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion when a net force is applied. Inverse of *vass*. Units of kg. Symbol *m*.

**matter** is any substance with mass that occupies a place.

**modal pace** is the minimum (“free flow”) pace of the mode of observation, independent of any object motion. It serves as a general conversion between time and space. Symbolized by *κ*.

**modal speed** is the maximum (“free flow”) speed of the mode of observation, independent of any object motion. It serves as a general conversion between space and time. Symbolized by *c*.

**moment** is the product of a physical quantity such as force times its distance from or toward a point or line in space.

**momentum** (linear) is the *velocity* weighted by (times) the *mass*. Latin. Units in kg m s^{‑1}. Symbol **p** = *m***v**.

**motion of a body** is a continuous change of its *placement* and instant in a time line, or a continuous change of its *timement* and point in a stance line.

**object** is a body with a *chronology* and *macronology*.

**pace** of a motion is the space rate of duration change, that is, the ratio of time interval to a stance line interval without regard to direction. Symbol *u*. From racing. Units of s/m, min/km, etc. *Puncstanceous* pace is d*t*/d*s*, which equals the magnitude of *puncstanceous* *legerity*.

**pace of light** is the pace of light in a vacuum, which equals 3.335 641 ns/m. Symbolized by *κ*.

**particle** (point mass) is (1) a very small object with motion and mass; (2) an idealized point object with space position and mass.

**period** is an interval of a time line.

**placement (or position)** of a point is the *displacement* vector to it from a reference point.

**point** is an event of minimal or no length.

**power** is the time (duration) rate of doing work: *P* = d*W*/d*t* = **F** · **v**. Units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

**proper length** (or travel length) is the length of a body measured by a rigid rod moving with it.

**proper time** (or travel time) is the time of a body measured by a clock moving with it.

**pseudo-duration** is measured by length and expressed as time, as with multiplying length by the minimum pace.

**pseudo-length** is measured by time and expressed as length, as with multiplying time by the maximum speed.

**puncstanceous** events occur in a point.

**reference frame** (or frame) is an abstract coordinate system and set of reference points in space-time that uniquely fix the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

**reference frame** is a space-time coordinate system and set of reference points in space-time.

**reference timeframe** (or timeframe) is an abstract coordinate system and set of reference points in time-space that uniquely fix the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

**reference timeframe** is a time-space coordinate system and set of reference points in time-space.

**rest frame** of a body is the reference frame in which the body is moving at zero speed, which is the time conversion pace.

**rotational facilia **(fulment of facilia) is the second *fulment* of *vass* with respect to distimement **w** from an axis: J = ∫ **w**^{2} d*n*.

**rotational inertia **(moment of inertia) is the second moment of mass with respect to displacement **r** from an axis: I = ∫ **r**^{2} d*m*.

**rush ****is the **space (length) rate of change of *fulmentum*. Units in *oldtons*, O = kg^{-1 }s m^{-2}. Symbol **Γ** = *n b* = Δ

**q**/Δ

*s*.

**simulstanceity **is a concept to determine which events happen at the same stance.

**simulstanceous **events occur at the same stance line point.

**simultaneity** is a concept that determines which events happen at the same time.

**simultaneous** events occur at the same time line point.

**space** is (1) length; (2) a 3D differentiable manifold of length with distance metric; (3) the order of events on a stance line; (4) *the stance*, the reading on an arcloge.

**spacetime** (spatiocosm) is a four-dimensional continuum with three dimensions of space and one dimension of scalar time (3+1).

**space-time** is 3D space with a time line (3+1), i.e., space parameterized by time.

**speed** of a motion is the time rate of length change, that is, the ratio of length interval to a time line interval without regard to direction. Symbol *v*. Units of m/s, km/hr, etc. Instantaneous speed is d*s*/d*t*, which equals the magnitude of instantaneous velocity.

**speed of light** is the speed of light in a vacuum, which equals 299 792 458 m/s. Symbolized by *c*.

**stance line** is a real number line; zero represents the 3D space origin point; negative numbers represent distances to events of decreasing distance from the origin; positive numbers represent distances to events of increasing distance.

**straight motion** is motion with constant turn direction.

**s****tretch** is an interval of a stance line.

**strophence **is the rate of change of angular *fulmentum* of a body, *σ = *I*β*. From Greek *strophe*, turn + (e)*nce.*

**surge** (1/work) is a *rush* **Γ** applied over a *distimement* **w**: *X* = **Γ**·**w**. For a constant *rush*: *X = Γ* Δ*t* = *Q* Δ*s*. Units O·s.

**synchronize** means to calibrate clocks for space-time. From Greek *syn + chron + ize* (“to occur at the same time”).

**synmacronize** means to calibrate measuring rods for 3D time + 1D space. From *syn + macron + ize* (“to occur at the same length”).

**time** is (1) duration; (2) a 3D differentiable manifold of duration with distime metric; (3) the order of events on a time line; (4) *the time*, the reading on a clock.

**time line** is a real number line; zero represents the 3D time origin instant; negative numbers represent distimes to events of decreasing distime from the origin; positive numbers represent distimes to events of increasing distime from the origin.

**time rod** measures length as time.

**timement of an instant **is the *distimement* vector to it from a reference instant.

**timespace** (temporocosm) is a four-dimensional continuum with one dimension of scalar space (stance) and three dimensions of time (1+3).

**time-space** is 3D time with a stance line (1+3), i.e., time parameterized by stance.

**torque** is the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, *τ = *I*α*. Units: N·m.

**transicle** (point vass) is (1) a very small body with movement and vass; (2) an idealized point body with time position and *vass*. From *transi*(t) + (parti)*cle*.

**traversal length** (arc length) is the length along a path of motion; or the integral of space positions.

**traversal time** (arc time) is the duration along a path of motion; or the integral of time positions.

**turn angle** is a proportion of a revolution between two rays intersecting in an instant.

**turn direction** is the turn angle from a reference ray.

**vass** is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement when a net *rush *is applied. Inverse of mass. From vast. Units of kg^{-1}. Symbol *n*.

**velocity** (vel∙o′∙ci∙ty) of a motion is the *displacement* per unit of its distimement magnitude. Symbol **v**. Mean velocity is Δ**r**/Δ*t*. Instantaneous velocity is d**r**/d*t* = d**r**/|d**w**|. From Latin *velocitas*, swiftness, rapidity.

**weight** is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

**work** is a force **F** applied over a displacement **r**: *W* = **F**· **r**. For a constant force: *W = F* Δ*s* = *P* Δ*t*. Units: J = N·m.

**world line** of a body is the 4D path the body traces in spacetime or timespace.