Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about time terms (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space terms (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in this pdf: Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics.

The terms below are from the Parallel Glossary of Space and Time for Classical Physics presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

acceleration is the change of velocity per unit of time; verb accelerate; negative is decelerate; zero is unaccelerated; instantaneous acceleration is dv/dt; units of m/s²; symbol a.

angular fulmentum for a tempicle time point is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × h, the cross product of the tempicle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, h = nw.

angular momentum for a particle space point is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with spatial and temporal position and extent.

carrier is a body with vass that fills a time; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

Cartesian coordinates of an event in 3 × 3 are: x1ex1 + x2ex2 + x3ex3 and t1et1 + t2et2 + t3et3 = (x1, x2, x3; t1, t2, t3) = (x; t), where xi and ti are rectilinear spatial and temporal coordinates respectively, x is the vector of location, and t is the vector of chronation.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; M = Σi ri mii mi.

center of vass (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of vass; N = Σi ti nii ni.

chronation is temporal position.

chronation is the temporal position; the temporal coordinates; symbol t.

circular motion: space circle S = wavelength λ = 1/h = μ/w = v/f; circular arc s; space radius R; (spatial) angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

clock (horologe) is a device that displays the distime to the present chronation from the time origin at a standard rate.

cyclic motion: time period T = wavetime μ = 1/f = λ/v = w/h; rotation time t; time radius Q; turn angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = w/μ; angular lenticity w = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then w = h; if Q = 1, then w = κ = 2πh = θ/s.

dependent variables (or functions) are measures dependent on an independent variable.

diachronic events occur through time.

direction is the position toward which a body moves; it applies to vectors of space or time.

dischronment is a temporal vector of chronation change.

displacement is a spatial vector of location change.

distance is the minimum extent between two space points.

distime is the minimum extent between two time points.

drawing is a release G applied over a length dx or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol KR·dx = dh.

duration (time interval) is a temporal extent.

energy: the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E; energy is conserved over time.

event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation.

facilia is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of motion; Latin for easy.

facilial frame (or system) bodies without external releases move with uniform lenticity.

force is the agency that tends to change the momentum of a body; time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s−2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

frame of reference (frame) is a method to assign each body a unique spatial or temporal position in a coordinate system of points in 3.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as vass or release and its time from/to a time point.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of vass; J ≡ Σi ti2ni.

fulmentum is the vass times the (space) lenticity; the space rate of change of the vass-time fulment; plural, fulmenta; Latin, prop; units of kg−1 s m−1; symbol q = nw.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

hodologe is a device that displays the distance to the present location from the space origin at a standard rate.

impulse is a force F applied over a time dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp.

independent variable is a quantity determined by the experimenter.

inertia is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial frame (or system) has bodies without external forces move with uniform velocity.

instantaneous event occurs in a single time point.

isochron line shows equitemporal events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the study of spatial and temporal positions and extents.

kinetic energy KE = ½mv².

kinetic lethargy KL = ½nw².

length (space interval) is a spatial extent.

length scale (or distance sc.) is a ratio of map length vs actual length.

lenticity (inverse velocity) is the dischronment per unit of length, Δtx; punctaneous lenticity is dt/dx; symbol w; from Latin lentus, slow (len·tic′·i·ty).

lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol D = 1/E; lethargy is conserved over distance.

levage is the release exerted on a body by levity (from French).

levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of vass.

location is spatial position.

location is the spatial position; the spatial coordinates; symbol x.

mass is a measure of a body’s inertia; the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of vass; units of kg; symbol m.

matter is a body with mass that occupies a space; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI unit of length, distance, and stance.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its length from/to a space point/axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the (time) velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-length moment; plural, momenta; units in kg m s−1; symbol p = mv.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its position relative to a system of reference.

observer is a frame associated with a body.

odometer is a device that measures the length of motion between space points.

pace (inverse speed) is the space rate of elapsed time without regard to direction, Δtx; punctaneous pace is pace at a stance point: dt/dx; pace is from racing (cf ritmo); symbol w; units of s/m, min/km, etc.

particle is a material point with mass & temporal extension.

perstancial events occur through stance.

placidity is the space rate of repose effected: Q ≡ dV/dx = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

power is the time rate of work done: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

punctaneous event occurs in a single stance point.

reciprocal addition (or harmonic or parallel) is the reciprocal of the addend reciprocals; symbol ⊞.

release is the agency that tends to change the fulmentum of a body; space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg−1 s m−2; symbol R ≡ dq/dx, e,g., nb.

relentment is the change of lenticity per unit of length; verb relent; negative is derelent; zero is unrelented; punctaneous relentation dw/dx; units s/m²; symbol b; from re- + Latin lentus, slow.

repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: Z R·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Q dx; units O·s.

second is the SI unit of duration, distime, and time.

simulstanceous events all occur at the same stance; n. simulstanceity.

simultaneous events all occur at the same time; n. simultaneity.

space frame of an observer or body is a frame at rest relative to it.

space mean pace | lenticity is the arithmetic mean of paces | lenticities with a common length unit.

space mean speed | velocity is the harmonic mean of speeds | velocities with a common length unit.

space point (point) is a spatial point.

spatial means relative to the space frame.

speed of a body is the time rate of distance traversed without regard to direction, Δxt; instantaneous speed is speed at a time point: dx/dt; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.

stance is the dimension along which time frames move.

stanceline is a series of stances.

stopwatch is a device that measures the time of motion between time points.

strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum, σ = Iβ = t × R; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronous events occur at the same times; vb. synchronize, to make synchronous.

synstanceous events occur at the same stances; vb. synstancize, to make synstanceous.

system of reference is a method to assign every event a unique position in a coordinate system of points in ℝ3 × ℝ3.

tempicle is a material time point with vass and spatial extension.

temporal means relative to the time frame.

time frame of an observer or body is a frame in standard motion relative to it.

time is the dimension along which space frames move.

time mean pace | lenticity is the harmonic mean of paces | lenticities with a common time unit.

time mean speed | velocity is the arithmetic mean of speeds | velocities with a common time unit.

time point (event) is an instant.

time scale (or duration sc.) is a ratio of map time interval vs actual time interval.

timeline is a series of times.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum, τ = Iα = r × F; units: N·m.

travel length (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc time) is the time along a curve.

vass measures a body’s facilia; nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from in)v(erse (m)ass; units of kg−1; symbol n.

velocity is the displacement per unit of time, Δxt; instantaneous velocity is dx/dt; symbol v; from Latin velocitas, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement x: W F· x; for a constant force: W = F dx = P dt; units: J = N·m.