In order to speak with precision about time terms (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space terms (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.
The terms below are from the Parallel Glossary of Space and Time for Classical Physics presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.
acceleration is the change of velocity per unit of independent time; verb accelerate, negative decelerate; zero acceleration is unaccelerated; instantaneous acceleration is dv/dt; units of m/s²; symbol a.
angular fulmentum for a tempicle time point is the fulment of fulmentum, Γ ≡ t × h, the cross product of the tempicle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, h = nw.
angular momentum for a particle space point is the moment of momentum, L ≡ r × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.
body is a physical entity with spatial and temporal position and extent.
carrier is a body with vass that fills a time; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.
Cartesian coordinates of an event in ℝ3 × ℝ3 are: x1ex1 + x2ex2 + x3ex3 and t1et1 + t2et2 + t3et3 = (x1, x2, x3; t1, t2, t3) = (x; t), where xi and ti are rectilinear coordinates in space and time respectively, x is the vector of location in space, and t is the vector of chronation in time.
center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; M = Σi ri mi/Σi mi.
center of vass (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of vass; N = Σi ti ni/Σi ni.
chronation is a position in time; the temporal coordinates; symbol t.
chronation is temporal position.
circular motion: space circle S = wavelength λ = 1/h = μ/w = v/f; circular arc s; space radius R; (spatial) angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.
clock (horologe) is a stopwatch with the time to the present from a standard starting event at a standard rate.
cyclic motion: time period T = wavetime μ = 1/f = λ/v = w/h; rotation time t; time radius Q; turn angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = w/μ; angular lenticity w = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then w = h; if Q = 1, then w = κ = 2πh = θ/s.
dependent variables are measures relative to an independent variable.
diachronic events occur through time.
dischronment is a vector in time.
displacement is a vector in space.
distance is the standard extent between two space points.
drawing is a release G applied over a length dx or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol K ≡ R·dx = dh.
duration is the standard extent between two time points.
energy: the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E; energy is conserved over time.
event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation.
facilia is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of motion; Latin for easy.
facilial frame (or system) bodies without external releases move with uniform lenticity.
force is the agency that tends to change the momentum of a body; time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s−2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, ma.
frame of reference (frame) is a method to assign each body a unique position in a coordinate system of points in ℝ3.
fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as vass or release and its time from/to a time point.
fulment of facilia is the second fulment of vass; J ≡ Σi ti2ni.
fulmentum is the vass times the lenticity; the space rate of change of the vass-time fulment; plural, fulmenta; Latin, prop; units of kg−1 s m−1; symbol q = nw.
gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.
impulse is a force F applied over a time dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol J ≡ F·dt = dp.
in space means relative to the space frame.
in time means relative to the time frame.
independent variable is a quantity determined by the experimenter.
inertia is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.
inertial frame (or system) has bodies without external forces move with uniform velocity.
instantaneous event occurs in a single time point.
isochron line shows equitemporal events.
isodistance line shows equidistant events.
kinematics is the study of spatial and temporal positions and extents.
kinetic energy KE = ½mv².
kinetic lethargy KL = ½nw².
length (of space) is an extent in space.
length of time is an extent in time.
length scale (or distance sc.) is a ratio of map length vs actual length.
lenticity (len·tic′·i·ty): (default) space lenticity of a body is the dischronment per unit of independent distance, Δt/x̂; time lenticity of a body is the reciprocal of its time velocity, t̂/Δx; puncstanceous lenticity is dt/dx; instantaneous lenticity is 1/(dx/dt); symbol w; from Latin lentus, slow.
lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol D = 1/E; lethargy is conserved over distance.
levage is the release exerted on a body by levity (from French).
levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of vass.
location is a position in space; the spatial coordinates; symbol x.
location is spatial position.
mass is a measure of a body’s inertia; the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of vass; units of kg; symbol m.
matter is a body with mass that occupies a space; a measure of the energy content of a body.
metre is the SI metric unit of length, distance, and stance.
moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its length from/to a space point/axis.
moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2mi.
momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-length moment; plural, momenta; units in kg m s−1; symbol p = mv.
motion of a body is a continuous change of its position relative to a system of reference.
observer is a frame associated with a body.
odologe is an odometer with the stance from a standard starting place at a standard rate.
odometer measures the length of motion between space points.
pace: (default) space pace of a body is the traversal time per unit of independent length without regard to direction, Δt/x̂; time pace of a body is the reciprocal of time speed, t̂/Δx; puncstanceous pace is space pace at a stance point: dt/dx; instantaneous pace is the reciprocal of the instantaneous time speed 1/(dx/dt); the term pace is from racing (cf ritmo or tempo); symbol w; units of s/m, min/km, etc.
particle is a material point with mass and extension in time.
perstancial events occur through stance.
placidity is the ratio of repose per unit of length: Q ≡ dV/dx = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.
power is the ratio of work per unit of time: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.
puncstanceous event occurs in a single stance point.
release is the agency that tends to change the fulmentum of a body; space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg−1 s m−2; symbol R ≡ dq/dx, nb.
repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: Z ≡ R·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Q dx; units O·s.
retardation is the change of lenticity per unit of independent length; verb retardate, negative deretardate; zero retardation is unretardated; puncstanceous retardation dw/dx; units s/m²; symbol b.
second is the SI metric unit of time and duration.
simulstanceous events all occur at the same stance; n. simulstanceity.
simultaneous events all occur at the same time; n. simultaneity.
space frame of an observer or body is a frame at rest relative to it.
space mean pace is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common length unit.
space mean speed is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common length unit.
space point (point) is a point in space.
speed: (default) time speed of a body is the length traversed per unit of independent time without regard to direction, Δx/t̂; space speed of a body is the independent length traversed per elapsed time at a location, x̂/Δt; instantaneous speed is time speed at a time point: dx/dt; puncstanceous speed is the reciprocal of the puncstanceous space pace 1/(dt/dx); symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.
stance interval is a segment of a stanceline, a distance.
stance is a radius, the distance from the space origin.
stanceline is a series of stances.
stopwatch is a device that measures the time of motion between time points.
strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum, σ = Iβ = t × R; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.
synchronic events are within a time interval.
synchronous, have the same times; vb. synchronize, make synchronous.
synstanceous events have the same stances; vb. synstancize, make synstanceous.
synstancial events are within a stance interval.
system of reference is a method to assign every event a unique position in a coordinate system of points in ℝ3 × ℝ3.
tempicle is a material time point with vass and extension in space.
time frame of an observer or body is a frame in standard motion relative to it.
time interval is a segment of a timeline.
time is a radial duration from (or to) the time origin.
time mean pace is the harmonic mean of paces with a common time unit.
time mean speed is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common time unit.
time point (event) is an instant in time.
time scale (or duration sc.) is a ratio of map time interval vs actual time interval.
timeline is a series of times.
torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum, τ = Iα = r × F; units: N·m.
travel length (arc length) is the length along a curve.
travel time (arc time) is the time along a curve.
vass measures a body’s facilia; nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from in)v(erse (m)ass; units of kg−1; symbol n.
velocity: (default) time velocity of a body is the displacement per unit of independent duration, Δx/t̂; space velocity of a body is the reciprocal of its space lenticity, x̂/Δt; instantaneous velocity is dx/dt; puncstanceous velocity is 1/(dt/dx); symbol v; from Latin velocitas, speed, rapidity.
weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.
work is a force F applied over a displacement x: W ≡ F· x; for a constant force: W = F dx = P dt; units: J = N·m.