iSoul In the beginning is reality.

Space-Time Glossary

In order to speak with precision about time terms (1 + 3) I’ve had to invent many new terms. I’ve tried to make them parallel to the corresponding space terms (3 + 1) terms and to follow scientific practice of using Greek and Latin roots. These new terms are placed parallel to their corresponding terms in two pdf’s, Parallel Glossary for Classical Physics and Parallel Glossary for Relativity Physics.

The terms below are from the Parallel Glossary of Space and Time for Classical Physics presented in this format: term in bold, definition, units, etymology, and in some cases a suggested symbol. Other terms in this glossary are in italics.

acceleration is the change in the displacement per unit of distime; verb is accelerate with negative decelerate; zero acceleration is unaccelerated; instantaneous acceleration is dv/dt = dv/|dt|; units of m/s²; symbol a.

angle (θ, ϕ) is a proportion of a circle between two rays intersecting in a place point.

angle direction is the angle from a reference ray.

angular fulmentum for a particle time point is the fulment of fulmentum, Γt × q, the cross product of the particle’s chronation vector, t, and its fulmentum vector, q = nu.

angular momentum for a particle place point is the moment of momentum, Lr × p, the cross product of the particle’s location vector, r, and its momentum vector, p = mv.

body is a physical entity with spatial and temporal extent and position.

carrier (wave) is a body with elaphrance that fills a trime; a measure of the lethargy content of a body.

center of elaphrance (or elaphrocenter) is the normalized fulment of elaphrance; T = (1/N) Σi ti ni.

center of mass (or bathycenter) is the normalized moment of mass; R = (1/M) Σi ri mi.

chronation of a time point is its coordinates relative to the time origin and axes; symbol t.

circular motion: space circle S = wavelength λ = v/f; circular arc s; space radius R; (spatial) angle θ = s/R; frequency f = 1/T = v/λ; angular velocity v = S/T = λf; if S = 1, then v = f; if R = 1, then v = ω = 2πf = θ/t.

cyclic motion: time period T = wave duration μ = u/h; rotation time t; time radius Q; turn angle ϕ = t/Q; periodicity h = 1/S = u/μ; angular lenticity u = T/S = μh; if T = 1, then u = h; if Q = 1, then u = κ = 2πh = θ/s.

dischronment is a trime vector; or the distime and turn direction between two trime points.

displacement is a space vector; or the distance and angle direction between two place points.

distance is (1) the linear (or shortest) length between two place points; (2) the magnitude of a displacement vector.

distance scale is a ratio of map distance vs. actual distance.

distime (time interval) is (1) the duration of standard uniform motion between two time points; (2) the magnitude of a dischronment vector.

distime scale is a ratio of map distime interval vs. actual distime interval.

drawing is a release G applied over a distance dx or change in fulmentum; units O·m; symbol KR·dx = dq.

duration is the extent of motion of a body or gap as measured by a stopwatch.

elaphra is the release exerted on a body by levity.

elaphrance is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its condition of movement as a net release is applied; inverse of mass; from elaphr + ance; units of kg–1; symbol n.

elapsed indicates a measure of independent uniform motion.

energy is the capacity for doing work; units, J ≡ N·m = W·s; symbol E.

event is a physical occurrence with location and chronation.

facilia (linear) is the nonresistance of a body to a change in its state of movement; Latin for easy.

facilial system has bodies at rest or moving with uniform lenticity.

force is the time rate of change of momentum; units in newtons, N = kg m s–2; symbol F ≡ dp/dt, e.g., ma.

frame of reference is a physical system that enables every event to be assigned a unique position.

fulment is the product of a physical quantity such as elaphrance or release and its distime from/to a time point.

fulment of facilia is the second fulment of elaphrance; J ≡ Σi ti2 ni.

fulmentum (ful∙men′∙tum) is the elaphrance times the lenticity; the space rate of change of the elaphrance-distime fulment; Latin, prop; units of kg‒1 s m‒1; symbol q = nu.

gravitation is the mutual force that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of mass.

impulse is a force F applied over a distime dt, or the change in momentum; units N·s; symbol JF·dt = dp.

inertia (linear) is the resistance of a body to any change in its state of motion.

inertial system has bodies at rest or moving with uniform velocity.

instantaneous (timepoint) events occur in a time point.

isochron line shows equidistimed events.

isodistance line shows equidistant events.

kinematics is the set of ordered pairs of spatial and temporal position, called location and chronation.

kinetic energy KE = ½ mv².

kinetic lethargy KL = ½ nu².

length is the extent of a body or gap at rest as measured by a rigid rod.

lenticity (len·tis′·i·ty): Δts (1a) space lenticity of a motion is the dischronment traversed per unit of distance elapsed (running length); (1b) time lenticity (moment velocity) of a motion is the dischronment traversed per unit of distance elapsed at a chronation; (2) placepoint lenticity is dt/dx; symbol w; from Latin lentus, slow, sluggish.

lethargy is the capacity for repose; units, 1/J ≡ O·s; symbol D = 1/E.

levitation is the mutual release that all bodies have, which is directed toward the mutual center of elaphrance.

location of a place point is its coordinates relative to the space origin and axes; symbol x.

mass is the resistance of a body to a change in its condition of motion as a net force is applied; inverse of elaphrance; units of kg; symbol m.

matter (particle) is a body with mass that occupies a space; a measure of the energy content of a body.

metre is the SI unit of length, distance, or stance.

moment is the product of a physical quantity such as mass or force and its distance from/to a place point/axis.

moment of inertia is the second moment of mass; I ≡ Σi ri2 mi.

momentum (linear) is the mass times the velocity; the time rate of change of the mass-distance moment; Latin, movement; units in kg m s‒1; symbol p = mv.

motion frame of an observer is a frame in uniform motion relative to it.

motion of a body is a continuous change of its position relative to an observer.

observer is a body capable of measurement.

odometer device displays the current distance moved.

pace: space pace of a motion is the distime traversed per unit of distance elapsed (running length) without regard to direction; time pace (moment pace) of a motion is the (short) distime traversed per unit of distance elapsed at a chronation; placepoint pace is dt/dx = |dt/dx|; the term pace is from racing; symbol u; units of s/m, min/km, etc.

place point is a point in space.

placeline is a series of scalar spaces.

placepoint events occur in a place point.

placidity is the ratio of repose per unit of distance: Z ≡ dV/dx = R·u; units: 1/J·m = O·s/m.

power is the ratio of work per unit of distime: P ≡ dW/dt = F ·v; units: Watt, W = J/s = N·m/s.

release is the space rate of change of fulmentum; units in oldtons, O = kg−1 s m−2; symbol R ≡ dq/dx, e,g., nb.

repose (inverse of work) is a release R applied over a dischronment t: X R·t; for a constant release: Y = R dt = Z dx; units O·s.

rest frame of an observer is a frame at rest relative to it.

retardation is the change in the dischronment per unit of distance; verb is retard with negative de-retard (or expedite); zero retardation is unretarded; placepoint retardation dw/dx = dw/|dx|; units s/m²; symbol b.

scalar space (stance) is the nonzero space coordinate relative to the time frame.

scalar time (time) is the nonzero time coordinate relative to the space frame.

second is the SI unit of duration, distime, or time.

simulstanceous events occur at the same stance; n. simulstanceity.

simultaneous events occur at the same timeline point; n. simultaneity.

space (3D space) is the R3 geometry of relative places.

space mean pace is the arithmetic mean of paces with a common length unit.

space mean speed is the harmonic mean of speeds with a common distance unit.

space origin is a reference place point in space.

speed: time speed of a motion is the distance traversed per unit of distime elapsed (running time) without regard to direction; space speed (or spot speed) of a motion is the (short) distance traversed per unit of distime elapsed at a location; instantaneous speed is dx/dt = |dx/dt|; symbol v; units of m/s, km/hr, etc.

stopwatch displays the current duration of motion.

strophence is the fulment of release; the rate of change of angular fulmentum of a body, σ = Iβ; from Greek strophe, turn + (e)nce.

synchronic events are at the same time in different places.

synchronous, have the same timeline points; vb. synchronize, make synchronous.

synstanceous events have the same stances; vb. synstancize, make synstanceous.

syntopic events are in the same place at different times.

time mean pace is the harmonic mean of paces with a common distime unit.

time mean speed is the arithmetic mean of speeds with a common time unit.

time origin is a reference time point in trime.

time point is a point in trime.

timeline is a series of scalar times.

torque is the moment of force; the rate of change of angular momentum of a body, τ = Iα; units: N·m.

travel distance (arc length) is the length along a curve.

travel time (arc duration) is the duration along a curve.

traversed indicates a measure of dependent motion.

trime (3D time) is the R3 geometry of relative times.

turn angle (χ, ψ) is a proportion of a revolution between two rays intersecting in a time point.

turn direction is the turn angle from a reference ray.

velocity: Δxt (1a) time velocity of a motion is the displacement traversed per unit of distime elapsed (running time); (1b) space velocity (spot velocity) of a motion is the displacement traversed per unit of distime elapsed at a location; (2) instantaneous velocity is dx/dt; symbol v; from Latin velocitas, swiftness, rapidity.

weight is the force exerted on a body by gravity.

work is a force F applied over a displacement x: W F· x; for a constant force: W = F dx = P dt; units: J = N·m.