# induction

what induction is and how it is justified

## From generalizations to universals

John P. McCaskey’s Key to Induction shows what scientific induction is all about: “[Scientists] want to know not only what is generally true but what is universally so, what is true without any possible exception. Below are three cases in which scientists were able to begin with general statements and progress to exceptionless universal ones. […]

## The real scientific method

The real scientific method is the inductive method invented by Socrates and elaborated by Aristotle, Bacon, and Whewell. It is different from the hypothetico-deductive method invented by JS Mill in the 19th century which is passed off as the method of modern science. Consider Francis Bacon. He called immature concepts “notions”. Induction starts with notions

## Reason and Risk: An Account of Induction

We begin with a non-empty, finite set of propositions that have already been accepted and compiled and now reside in a database of accepted propositions (DAP). Assume there is some known risk (possible zero) associated with accepting these propositions. Let the level of risk of the nth proposition Pn be a non-negative number, R(Pn), which

## Dialogue on induction

Greek Coffee Philario was sitting in the coffee shop, typing into his computer when he saw his friend Hector and greeted him. Philario:  Hi, Hector.  What’s up? Hector:  Well said, Philario.  What is up.  Who is down. Philario:  Are you trying to Costello me? Hector:  I wasn’t Abbott to do that. Philario:  Very funny.  I’m

## All horses are the same color?

Recall that mathematical induction has two requirements: a base case and an inductive step. Show that a statement is true for x=1 and show that if it is true for x=n, then it is true for x=n+1. The induction follows as a falling series of dominoes. Evolutionists try to do something similar. They show that evolution is true in

## Convergent induction

History of Chemistry, Simplified The simplest universe has only one kind of substance, which was the first scientific theory, that of Thales (ca 585 BC) who stated that the origin of all matter is water. Then there was Anaximenes, who held that everything in the world is composed of air. Xenophanes said, It’s all Earth.