space & time

Matters relating to length and duration in physics and transportation

Newtonian light wave front

Consider the standard relativity configuration. Let a spherical light wave be emitted from the coincident coordinate origins at t=0 and t′=0. For the rest frame, the spherical wave front is given by x² + y² + z² = c²t². For the frame moving at velocity v parallel to the x-axis, two-way light must be considered. …

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Time-space transformations

This post is based on David Tong’s Newtonian Mechanics, 1.2.1 Galilean Relativity. Given one facilial frame system, S, in which a tempicle has coordinates t(x), we can always construct another facilial frame system, S′, in which a tempical has coordinates t′(x) by any combination of the following transformations: Translations: t′ = t + a, for …

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Lagrange’s equations in time-space

This post is based on the article Deriving Lagrange’s equations using elementary calculus by Josef Hanc, Edwin F. Taylow, and Slavomir Tuleja (AJP 72(4) 2004), which provides a derivation of Lagrange’s equations from the principle of least action using elementary calculus. A tempicle moves along the t axis with potential lethargy W(t), which is location-independent. …

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Definitions of mass and vass

The conservation of momentum states (see here): For a system of objects, a component of the momentum (p = mv, the mass times the velocity) along a chosen direction is constant, if no net outside force with a component in this chosen direction acts on the system. The corresponding principle for fulmentum states: For a system …

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Polar plot in space and time

This post builds on others such as this. It’s not unusual to see a map of travel time from a central location, for example, this map of Washington, DC, USA (click to enlarge): Two-dimensions of travel time are represented as in space but could be represented as in time. Here is an example, first of …

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Relative velocity and lenticity

Consider a particle P in uniform motion. Suppose two inertial observers observe its motion. Observer K is stationary relative to the ground, and observer L is in uniform motion in the same direction as P but at a different rate. (A) Say the spatial position of P relative to K is x(P, K), the spatial …

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Opposite velocities and lenticities

Two opposite velocities — or lenticities — are invariant over time and space. The standard Galileian transformation in the space-time domain is Velocity u transforms as Velocity is not invariant relative to a single inertial observation, but it is relative to observations with opposite relative velocities: That is Harmonic velocities are opposites and so are …

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Addition of rates

Abstract It is easily shown that there are two kinds of addition for rates: arithmetic addition and reciprocal addition. The kind of addition required depends on whether the variable in common has the same units as the denominator or numerator. This is shown and illustrated with rates of speed and velocity. Several examples are given …

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Distance, duration and direction

A related post is here. There are three measures of motion: distance, duration, and direction in three dimensions. Direction in three dimensions requires two angles. Distance and duration are non-negative scalars. All measures are relative to an observer. From these base measures several others are derived: Distance divided by duration is a rate called speed. …

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