The following is based on *Classical Mechanics* by Kibble and Berkshire, 5^{th} ed., Imperial College Press, 2004, with the dual version indented and changes *italicized*.

p.2 The most fundamental assumptions of physics are probably those concerned with the concepts of space and time. We assume that space and time are continuous, that it is meaningful to say that an event occurred at a specific point in space and a specific instant of time, and that there are universal standards of length and time (in the sense that observers in different places and at different times can make meaningful comparisons of their measurements).

The most fundamental assumptions of physics are probably those concerned with the concepts of *length* and *duration*. We assume that *length* and *duration* are continuous, that it is meaningful to say that an event occurred at a specific point in length space and a specific instant of *duration space*, and that there are universal standards of length and *duration* (in the sense that observers in different places and at different times can make meaningful comparisons of their measurements).

In ‘classical’ physics, we assume further that there is a universal time scale (in the sense that two observers who have synchronized their clocks will always agree about the time of any event), that the geometry of space is Euclidean, and that there is no limit in principle to the accuracy with which we can measure all positions and velocities.

In dual ‘classical’ physics, we assume further that there is a universal *length* scale (in the sense that two observers who have *symbasalized* their clocks will always agree about the *base *of any event), that the geometry of *time* is Euclidean, and that there is no limit in principle to the accuracy with which we can measure all *chronations* and *legerities*.