iSoul Time has three dimensions

Category Archives: Knowing

epistemology, science, kinds of knowledge, methodology

Einstein exchanged

Albert Einstein’s book Relativity: The Special and General Theory was originally published in German and translated into English in 1920. In the second chapter he introduces “The System of Co-ordinates”. The following post gives Einstein’s text followed by a revision that exchanges length with duration and space with time. First, Einstein’s text, with alternative wordings in square brackets:

End of Chapter I – If, in pursuance of our habit of thought, we now supplement the propositions of Euclidean geometry by the single proposition that two points on a practically rigid body always correspond to the same distance (line-interval), independently of any changes in position to which we may subject the body, the propositions of Euclidean geometry then resolve themselves into propositions on the possible relative position of practically rigid bodies.

Chapter II – On the basis of the physical interpretation of distance which has been indicated, we are also in a position to establish the distance between two points on a rigid body by means of measurements. For this purpose we require a “distance” (rod S) which is to be used once and for all, and which we employ as a standard measure. If, now, A and B are two points on a rigid body, we can construct the line joining them according to the rules of geometry; then, starting from A, we can mark off the distance S time after time [again and again] until we reach B. The number of these operations required is the numerical measure of the distance AB. This is the basis of all measurement of length.

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Intellectual hierarchies

Societies have an intellectual hierarchy reflected in their academic hierarchy that exhibit their scale of concepts and values. There are basically three groups of intellectual disciplines: the study of divinity (theology), the humanities, and the sciences. There are six possible ways of ordering these three, which shows the intellectual state of a society.

(1) Theology, humanities, sciences: This is the medieval and Renaissance order.

(2) Theology, sciences, humanities: This is the early modern order, which is deistic with scientific realism.

(3) Humanities, theology, sciences: This is the conservative Catholic order, which is humanistic and traditionalist.

(4) Humanities, sciences, theology: This is the liberal Catholic order, which is humanistic with scientific realism.

(5) Sciences, theology, humanities: This is the conservative Protestant order, which is scientistic with theological realism.

(6) Sciences, humanities, theology: This is the late modern order, which is scientistic and humanistic.

Order number (1) is the proper one because it places the highest truth (God) first, then humanity second, then the world after these are properly understood.

Deep time postulate

This subject was previously mentioned, e.g., here.

James Hutton proposed introducing deep time into modern science in 1788. In the early 19th century it was accepted for the geologic time scale. Biologists followed with Darwinism in the late 19th century. Astronomers accepted it to explain cosmology.

What’s wrong with the deep time postulate (DTP)?

The DTP is a large expansion of explanatory resources. It may be compared with explaining crimes by assuming that everyone has access to a large amount of cash. That may make it easier to explain crimes, but such an assumption leads to poor quality explanations.

Similarly, the DTP makes scientific explanations easier, but not better. The more time there is, the more time that one has to fit all the events that might have happened to bring about some state of affairs. But easier does not make better.

This is most egregious in evolutionary biology, in which the possibility of the extremely unlikely happening becomes seemingly more likely the more time there is. It leads to the evolutionary imagination running riot with possibilities. Such a science turns away from what actually occurred.

The DTP invents a whole history that is discontinuous with history based on documents and testimonies. Such a time is not the time of memory but of calculation. It obscures the difference between science and history. History seeks key particulars, whereas science looks for universals. It will not do to replace history with science, as the 19th century ideologues tried to do (Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx).

Science is based on induction, not explanation. The slow accumulation of evidence, the incremental formation of hypotheses and laws, and experimental testing are the hallmarks of science. Grandiose postulates are contrary to this careful effort. The DTP should be rejected.

Objects and subjects in motion

An object is stable. A rock is an object. Water is an object if it is in a container. A rigid rod is an object.

A subject changes. A person is a subject. Air is a subject since it keeps moving. A clock is a subject.

The grammatical subject and object are distinguished in a sentence, though they both may be things. For example, “The rock rolled down the hill.” Both the rock and the hill are things, that is objects, but in the sentence the rock is the subject and the hill is the object.

Objects are acted upon. A predicate is required to go with an object. An object apart from a sentence is a thing, something passive.

Subjects are active. A verb is required to go with a subject. A subject apart from a sentence is still a potential change agent.

Space is like an object and time is like a subject. If we start with objects and then discuss their motions, we are beginning with the passive objects of space and then adding the active subjects of time. If we start with subjects, we get their motions, too, and may then bring in the objects of space. That is beginning with an active time and adding the passive objects of space.

A reference motion must be active and so include a subject. A comparative motion is passive in relation to the reference motion and so must include an object.

Bodies and things may be subjects or objects, though many are usually one or the other. The difference is in whether they change or move. An object need not move. A subject is usually moving.

Objects are in space. Subjects are in time. Space never moves. Time always moves.

Moving bodies in space and time

Let us compare the motions of two bodies. Let the motion of one body be the reference motion. Let the motion of the other body be the comparative motion. Let the two bodies begin together at one place.

Definitions:

A place is the general term for an answer to Where? A point-place, or simply a point, is the smallest place. A translation is a vector from one point-place to another. Travel distance is the arc length of the trajectory of a motion, which includes any retracing of the trajectory.

Space and time refer to different perspectives of the universe of motion.

Space is the locus of all potential places for the comparative motion, which is said to be “in space.” Displacement is a translation vector from one point to another point of the comparative motion. The travel distance from the beginning point to the ending point of the comparative motion, is the travel length for a motion in space.

Time is the locus of all potential places for the reference motion, which is said to be “in time.” Distimement is a translation vector from one point to another point of the reference motion. The travel distance from the beginning point to the ending point of the reference motion, is the travel time for a motion in time.

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Balancing contraries

Other posts on contraries include this.

Contrary opposites entail one another. There is no north without south or tall without short, for example. Some things such as sex are contraries in some respects but not in all respects.

Contrary opposites are symmetric. Contraries can be reversed or inverted, and they are still there. Since mirror opposites do not necessarily exist, mirror images are not contraries, though they exhibit a symmetry.

Because contraries entail one another and are symmetric, it is arbitrary to always prefer one to the other. One could just as well prefer the opposite contrary.

Contrary opposites can be unified into a higher perspective that contains them both. Unification is an expanded position that incorporates contraries.

Contrary opposites can be balanced in a duality that resists unification. A static equilibrium or dynamic harmony favors contrary opposites equally.

Ancient science prefers static contraries in balanced duality. Modern science prefers dynamic contraries in progressive unification.

Replicating time

In mathematical finance, a replicating portfolio for a given asset is a portfolio of assets with the same properties. Here we replicate time through motions that have the same properties as time.

Step 1. Consider the motion of a rigid body A with a translation and a rotation around the same axis, such that the translation and rotation begin and end together. Measure the displacement of the translation as a multiple of the rigid body length along the axis. Count the number of rotations and any fractional rotation of the rigid body. The assertion here is that the quantity of rotations is a measure of the distimement, that is, the duration of motion around the axis of rotation.

Step 2. Separate the motion of rigid body A into a translation of rigid body B and a rotation of rigid body C such that the displacement of B and the distimement of C are the same as the displacement and distimement of A in step 1. Then the displacement of B is a measure of the displacement of A, and the distimement of C is a measure of the distimement of A.

Step 3. Construct an independent clock as a rotating rigid body that matches the rotation of rigid bodies A and C but runs continuously. Note the marking on the clock when rigid bodies A and C start and stop moving. The quantity of rotations between the start and stop is equal to the duration of motion of rigid bodies A and C. The reading on the clock is a measure of scalar time.

Conclusion. In order to generalize this the clock needs to move at a constant rate that is standardized for all clocks. Then allow another rotation so that the motion of translation and rotation replicates any rigid body motion per Chasles [shahl] Theorem of kinematics.

Chasles [shahl] Theorem states: Every rigid body motion can be realized by a rotation about an axis combined with a translation parallel to that axis. (Reference)

The independent clock generates a scalar time because it is not associated with any axis or direction. If the clock is associated with an axis of motion, then it generates a vector time, just as a rigid rod along an axis generates a vector length.

All theories are limited

This post continues previous posts on this topic, such as here.

Once a theory becomes established, it is always valid. It is never falsified. What happens is that its limits are discovered. Any pretense to being universal breaks down.

All theories are limited. Theories are analogies, and all analogies have limits. It is the scientific fashion to initially present a theory as universal, but this is a manner of speaking, not to be taken literally. No theory is universal because all theories have their limits.

When the limits of a theory are known, it is what Werner Heisenberg called a closed theory. An open theory is one whose limits are not known. It may be considered universal, even though it is not. But until its limits are known, no one knows its limits so it’s as if there are none. Eventually, limits will be found.

This means for example, there are three valid theories of the figure of the earth: the flat earth, the spherical earth, and the ellipsoidal earth. Each is valid within a certain domain of accuracy and precision.

There are several valid theories of the celestial bodies: simple geocentrism, Ptolemaic geocentrism, Copernican heliocentrism, Tychonic geoheliocentrism, Keplerian heliocentrism, Newtonian barycentrism, and Einsteinian cosmology. They are all valid within their domain of applicability.

Several theories of biological diversity are valid: fixed species, fixed kinds with limited change, and change over time (evolution). None of these are universal. They all have their limits.

Disciples and relatives of Jesus

There are many disciples of Jesus in the Bible, but there are twelve that are particularly the disciples, or simply, the twelve. Some of these are related to each other. In the small town region of Galilee where Jesus lived that would not be surprising.

What follows is a summary of the disciples and relatives of Jesus, given that we don’t have as much detail about them as we would like. First, the twelve disciples, which are listed four times in the New Testament (Mt 10:1–4, Mk 3:13–19, Lk 6:12–16, and Acts 1:13):

Simon Peter and Andrew, brothers who worked with Zebedee’s family fishing business. Jesus gave Simon the nickname Peter.

James and John, sons of Zebedee and Salome, whom Jesus nicknamed Boanerges, “sons of thunder”.

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Creation and evolution intersect

The controversy over creation vs. evolution, or creationism vs. evolutionism (naturalism), is often treated as an either-or, one-or-the-other proposition. In fact the creation models of today contain much that would be classified as ‘evolution’ (change over time).

Before the 19th century, theories of creation accepted a static model in biology, geology, and astronomy. That is, the universe of today was considered virtually the same as it was when first created. Extinction, for example, was widely considered impossible. In the 19th century Georges Cuvier and others showed that fossils were the remains of living beings and extinctions did occur. That upended the static model of creation.

Opponents of creationism, from Darwin to today, define creationism as the static model of creation. However, creationists have included change over time to their model of creation, starting in the 19th century and continuing today. Much of what commonly comes under the heading ‘evolution’ is part of the creation model today: adaptation, natural selection, speciation — all are part of creationism.

It is false to identify creationism with a static model of creation.

What parts of evolution theory are not part of creation theory today? Universal common descent is part of evolution theory but not creation theory. Change over time is limited in creation theories to within life forms or kinds (similar to genus or family), whereas there are no limits to change over time in theories of evolution. The postulate of deep time is necessary for theories of evolution, but not for theories of creation.

Importantly, humans are different only in degree from other animals in theories of evolution, but in theories of creation humans are different in kind from other animals. This point goes beyond mere biology to a statement of what it means to be human. Accordingly, it is open to other disciplines. For example, Mortimer J. Adler’s The Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes makes a philosophical case for humans being different in kind from other animals.

Theories of creation and evolution intersect. Their differences are about the limits to change over time, rather than the existence of change over time.