space & time

Explorations of multidimensional space and time with linear and angular motion.

The flow of time and space

Marcus Aurelius wrote, “Time is like a river made up of the events which happen, and a violent stream; for as soon as a thing has been seen, it is carried away, and another comes in its place, and this will be carried away too.” Time flows, and keeps flowing day and night, whether anything …

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Is time three-dimensional?

This post is a companion with the post “Is space one-dimensional?“. As we can compare the alleged one-dimensionality of time with how we think about space, so we can compare the three-dimensionality of space with how we think about time. In both cases the comparison is instructional. Space and time are parallel in both cases …

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Is space one-dimensional?

While the answer is No, space is three-dimensional, it is instructional to compare space with time as people speak about it. The philosopher JME McTaggart made a well-known distinction between an A-series, which is “the series of positions [in time] running from the far past through the near past to the present, and then from the present to the …

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Time for spacetime

Consider a worldline in one dimension of space and one dimension of time that tracks the position of a point that moves from position 20 to 10 to 15. This could represent the movement of a point in the E-W dimension. Another worldline could track the movement of the same point in the N-S dimension. All would agree …

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Space, time and causality

If we drop a stone into a calm body of water, it sends out circular waves. As the waves move outward, the clock is ticking and we say the dropped stone caused the waves, which are an irreversible process in time. But we would also say the waves are moving in space, so why isn’t …

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Measures of speed and velocity

The speed of an object is the ratio of distance (or length) traveled and the duration of travel. It is derived from the distance traveled during a given duration. It is expressed as the measured distance divided by the given duration, that is, distance relative to duration in units of distance over duration, e.g., m/s, km/hr, etc. For example, …

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Homogeneity and isotropy of time

The homogeneity and isotropy of space are well-known. The homogeneity of time is partly known but is confused by an “arrow of time” concept that is not applicable to space and time. The isotropy of time is unknown (and usually denied) also because of confusion with an inapplicable “arrow of time” concept. I previously wrote about the …

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Multiple dimensions of time

This post is another in a series on the duality of space and time. I have emphasized that the basis for space is length and the basis for time is duration. What, then, about direction? Does direction apply to both space and time? Yes, and in the same manner. If someone says, “The hotel is 10 minutes away by …

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