Centers of time measurement

The ancient center of time measurement was the earth, and this is still used in everyday life. The changing positions of the sun and moon relative to the earth make a convenient clock. In this sense, geocentric time makes sense. But the movements of planets are difficult to use in this way; their retrograde movements require ad hoc modifications to a geocentric system.

The proposal to switch to a sun-centered time system was met with resistance but its advantages eventually won out, with Newton’s laws ending the issue. The greater comprehensiveness of heliocentric time (heliochronic system) over geocentric time (geochronic system) proved to be decisive. Nevertheless, the everyday terms noon, morning, afternoon, etc. are still used, showing the naturalness of a geochronic system.

In the 20th century, the atomic clock was invented, which uses an electronic transition frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms (the signal electrons in atoms emit when they change energy level). This might be called a “phochronic” (light-time) standard. The positions of celestial bodies are not used with this system of time. It is an acentric time standard.

If accuracy is the most important factor, then a phochronic system is best. But it is not surprising that the “24/7” way of life arose since this acentric system was implemented. Time is less and less connected with the rhythms of the sun, the week, the seasons, etc. If the latter are the most important, then the geochronic system is best since it fits well with these rhythms, which are still an important part of the cycles of life.