The *space-time exchange invariance*, as stated by J. H. Field (see *here*) has an implicit second part. In addition to (1) the exchange (or interchange) of space and time coordinates, there is (2): the exchange of series and parallel or *reciprocal arithmetic* for ratios.

This is seen in the different averaging methods for velocities that differ spatially vs. velocities that differ temporally. If two vehicles take the same route, their average velocity is their arithmetic mean (*u* + *v*)/2, but if one vehicle has velocity *u* going and velocity *v* returning, then the average velocity is their harmonic mean 2/(1/*u* + 1/*v*). However, if one vehicle has pace *u* going and pace *v* returning, then the average pace is their arithmetic mean, but if two vehicles take the same route, their average pace is their harmonic mean.

Space and time are related to each other as covariant and contravariant components. If space is covariant, then time is contravariant, and if time is covariant, then space is contravariant.

The equations of space-time (3+1) and time-space (1+3) physics are symmetric to one another with the interchange of space and time dimensions. The equations of spacetime (4D) physics are self-symmetric. The interchange of space and time dimensions produces equivalent 4D equations.

To interchange the space and time coordinates, take these steps: For the equations of classical physics, (1) ensure either space or time is a parameter, (2) interchange one dimension with the parameter, and (3) expand the single dimension into three dimensions. For the equations of relativistic physics, (1) ensure there is a symmetry between space and time dimensions, (2) interchange one space and time dimension but leave dimensionless quantities unchanged, and (3) expand the single dimension into three dimensions.

These steps reflect the difference between Galileo’s and Einstein’s relativity. Galileo transforms one frame into another frame but does not combine frames as Einstein’s does. For example, Einstein requires all frames to have the same orientation, but Galileo accepts frame-specific orientations such as the right-hand rule.

The Galilean transformation represents the addition and subtraction of velocities as vectors. The dual Galilean transformation represents the addition and subtraction of lenticities as vectors. The Lorentz transformation represents the combination of Galilean and dual-Galilean transformations, as previously shown.