Rates of change are of two kinds. An ordinary rate for the change of f relative to a unit of x is defined as:
The reciprocal rate is the reciprocal of an ordinary rate with a change of g relative to a unit of x is defined as:
An ordinary rate has its independent variable in the denominator. The independent variable of a reciprocal rate is in the numerator. A reciprocal rate is the reciprocal of the inverse (or reverse) rate, which has the independent and dependent variables interchanged:
Ordinary rates are added arithmetically:
whereas reciprocal rates are added reciprocally (see post on reciprocal arithmetic):
Differential rates are also of two types. The derivative of f relative to x is defined as:
The reciprocal derivative of g relative to x is defined as:
This is similar to an ordinary derivative, but it is functionally related to the inverse function by the inverse function theorem.
Ordinary derivatives are added arithmetically:
whereas reciprocal derivatives are added reciprocally:
Ordinary derivatives are the rate of change of a function at a point. Reciprocal derivatives are the rate of change of the inverse function.